Torcson estimates that a high-quality, low-cost physician
would then earn about $206.19 for that visit, whereas a low-quality, high-cost physician would earn $166.19.
Other suspect arrangements listed include free or significantly discounted office space or equipment, free or significantly discounted billing services, income guarantees, low-interest loans, and inappropriately low-cost physician
coverage in hospital group insurance plans.
Research suggests that even in the same hospital, death rates for high-cost physicians are higher than those for low-cost physicians
, even when data is standardised for severity level.