Finally, comparison of relaxed and contracted gills revealed the following: (1) the distance between adjacent septa decreased; (2) the vertical spacing between the longitudinal muscle
bands decreased, as well as the vertical spacing between the water-tube muscles; and (3) the interfilament space decreased (Fig.
The longitudinal muscle
fibers, in transverse section, are arranged in radiating plates, as in Ptychodera and Stereobalanus (Woodwick, 1996); there are fewer than 50 plates, with spaces between them, and they narrow near the center of the proboscis where the coelom is small or absent (Fig.
(1996) on holothuroid longitudinal muscle
bands, and now by ours on holothuroid Cuvierian tubule muscles.
This description differs significantly from that of Dennell (1940), who described only the accessory longitudinal muscle
(his "longitudinal photophore muscle") and not the main longitudinal muscle
A longitudinal muscle
(10-mm length) was dissected out, tied with cotton thread at each end, and mounted in a chamber (2.5 ml) filled with artificial seawater (ASW).
In all nematodes, the longitudinal muscle
bands are composed of a single layer of cells, and the contractile filaments form a layer along the distal surface of each cell.
When the tube foot elongates, its longitudinal muscle
Ventrally - between the blood vessel space and the inner, longitudinal muscle
layer - lie several layers of muscle fibers that run at a variety of angles oblique to the cross-section [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4C OMITTED].
It commonly occurs midway between the anti-mesenteric and lateral taenia, where the wall is potentially weak not only because the circular muscle lacks the support of the longitudinal muscle
, but also because it is traversed here by arteries as they access the submucosal vascular plexuses.
In the superior longitudinal muscle
, for example, there is a greater number of slow fibers in the base and body of the tongue, whereas in the blade, there is a greater number of fast fibers, which allow the blade to perform delicate and fast movements by changing its shape .
Cross sections of tentacles confirmed that the gastrodermis is separated from the epidermis by a collagenous mesogleal layer containing numerous longitudinal muscle
cells arranged in fascicles.
growth occurs in the first four to six postnatal weeks in rats (Dayanidhi & Lieber, 2014).