Only the longitudinal method
of study, in which serial measurements are made on the same subjects, can identify true age-related changes.
The long-term or longitudinal method
requires a more elaborate set-up.
Two methods of reporting multigrade trends were used: the traditional cross-sectional method and the longitudinal method
. The longitudinal method
was further subdivided into one in which group membership was redefined each year by whether or not a student was receiving special education services, and another in which group membership was defined by special education status in the first year of the study and remained static across the 5 years.
Qualitative Longitudinal Methods
: Researching Implementation and Change
examine subjects over a given time period.
The purpose of the present study was to examine mathematics growth using three different longitudinal methods
for identifying the SWD subgroup and to contrast achievement outcomes from these methods with the results obtained when SWD membership is determined on an annual basis, as specified in NCLB.
Indeed, many EMA studies borrow assessment strategies from a well-established tradition of longitudinal methods
, such as experience sampling, diary methods, and event-contingent responding (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 1987; Nelson 1977), and use many of these methods in concert to assess phenomena of interest.
Intensive longitudinal methods
; an introduction to diary and experience sampling research.
cut logs into flitches and record grade data and features from each flitch.
longitudinal linkage between ownership concentration and R&D spending has been analyzed differently across the studies; (2) the longitudinal methods
used for investigating this subject are representative of the majority of those appearing elsewhere in management research; (3) the authors are clear in how they handled longitudinal issues; (4)the data can be accessed and measured similarly, thereby facilitating comparisonwith earlier study; and (5) there is lack of consensus in the linkage between ownership and R&D.