Of the ligaments involved, posterior ligaments (Interspinous, Supraspinous, Ligamentum flavum) were commonly involved than Anterior and Posterior longitudinal ligaments
. (ALL & PLL).(table 17) VASCULAR INJURIES: In two cases, loss of flow void was noted in right vertebral artery.
All patients of 18-60 years of age who had cervical spine diseases such as cervical spondylosis, metastatic tumors of spine, spinal tuberculosis, ossified posterior longitudinal ligaments
and plasmacytoma were included in this descriptive study.
Spinal MRI shows extensive and prominent degenerative changes such as ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, thickening of anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
, vacuum phenomena, reduced intervertebral disc spaces and multiple Schmorl's nodes with multiple prolapsed discs.
Component Young's modulus Poisson's Cross section (MPa) ratio ([mm.sup.2]) Cortical bone 12000.0 0.30 Endplate 1200.0 0.29 Cancellous bone 100.0 0.30 Annulus ground substance 4.2 0.45 Nucleus pulposus 1.0 0.49 Annulus fiber 450.0 0.45 Anterior 20.0 0.30 63.7 longitudinal ligaments
Posterior 20.0 0.30 20.0 longitudinal ligaments
Intertransverse ligament 58.7 0.30 3.6 Ligamentum flavum 19.5 0.30 40.0 Interspinous ligament 11.6 0.30 40.0 Supraspinous ligament 15.0 0.30 30.0 Capsular ligament 32.9 0.30 60.0 Pedicle screws and rod 110000.0 0.28 20.0 PEEK cage 3600.0 0.25 TABLE 2: The L4-L5 range of motion (ROM) in different groups under six operating conditions.
Motomura, "Uniaxial cyclic stretch induces osteogenic differentiation and synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins of spinal ligament cells derived from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments
," Bone, vol.
Thereby, either anterior or posterior longitudinal ligaments
were left intact as well as the joint capsules C0/C1 and C1/2 and the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital ligaments.
Ossification of anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
sometimes coexists in DISH.
Potential sources of bleeding identifiable on angiogram and surgical exploration are multiple including the anterior longitudinal ligaments
, inferior thyroid artery, and the thyrocervical artery [1,11-13].
The most frequent findings included generalized vertebral sclerosis (24, 88.8%), ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (23, 85%), anterior (20, 74%) and lateral (17, 62.9%) disc herniation, thickened longitudinal ligaments
, and narrowing of spinal foramina.
It often takes the form of a spondylitis characterized by asymmetric thickening and calcification of the longitudinal ligaments
of the spine, resulting in asymmetric syndesmophytes on imaging.
All musculature was removed carefully, leaving ligamentous structures intact, including the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
, intraspinous ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum.
MRI confirmed multiple levels of vertebral body involvement from T7 to T10 with soft-tissue masses extending under the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments