lomustine


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Related to lomustine: carmustine

lomustine

 [lo-mus´tēn]
a nitrosourea alkylating agent used as an antineoplastic agent in treatment of Hodgkin's disease and brain tumors, administered orally. Called also CCNU.

lomustine

CeeNU

Pharmacologic class: Alkylating drug (nitrosourea)

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic

Pregnancy risk category D

FDA Box Warning

• Give under supervision of physician experienced in cancer chemotherapy, in facility with adequate diagnostic and treatment resources. Most common and severe toxic effect is bone marrow suppression, which may contribute to bleeding and overwhelming infections in already compromised patients. Delayed bone marrow suppression is major toxicity, so monitor blood counts weekly for at least 6 weeks after dose. At recommended dosage, don't give courses more often than every 6 weeks. Bone marrow toxicity is cumulative; consider adjusting dosage based on nadir blood counts from previous dose.

Action

Inactivates neoplastic cells by alkylating DNA, causing DNA structural modification and fragmentation. Thought to act in late G1 or early S phase of cell cycle.

Availability

Capsules: 10 mg, 40 mg, 100 mg

Dose pack: two 10-mg capsules, two 40-mg capsules, and 100-mg capsules

Indications and dosages

Adjunctive therapy in primary and metastatic brain tumors; secondary therapy in Hodgkin's disease

Adults and children: As monotherapy, 130 mg/m2 P.O. as a single dose q 6 weeks in previously untreated patients. In bone marrow suppression, initial dosage is 100 mg/m2 P.O. q 6 weeks; don't repeat dose until platelet count exceeds 100,000/mm3 and white blood cell (WBC) count exceeds 4,000/mm3. When given with other myelosuppressive drugs, adjust dosage accordingly.

Dosage adjustment

• Bone marrow depression (based on WBC and platelet counts)

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal or hepatic dysfunction, bone marrow depression

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Obtain CBC with white cell differential before starting therapy.

• Administer antiemetic before giving drug, as prescribed, to minimize nausea.

• Give 2 to 4 hours after meals to enhance absorption.

• If vomiting occurs shortly after administration, notify prescriber.

Adverse reactions

CNS: anxiety, confusion, dizziness, hallucinations, lethargy, headache, paresthesia, light-headedness, drowsiness, fatigue, seizures

GI: nausea; vomiting; anorexia; sore mouth, lips, and throat; GI bleeding

GU: amenorrhea, azoospermia, progressive azotemia, nephrotoxicity, renal failure

Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatotoxicity

Skin: alopecia

Other: secondary cancers

Interactions

Drug-drug. Anticoagulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: increased bleeding risk

Myelosuppressants: increased bone marrow depression

Drug-diagnostic tests. Hemoglobin, platelets, red blood cells, WBCs: decreased values

Liver function tests, nitrogenous compounds: increased values

Patient monitoring

Watch for evidence of overdose, including bone marrow depression, nausea, and vomiting.

Monitor CBC and platelet counts closely. Watch for signs and symptoms of bleeding and bruising.

• Avoid I.M. injections if platelet count is below 100,000/mm3.

• Check kidney, liver, and pulmonary function tests frequently.

• Assess neurologic status carefully. Institute safety measures as needed to prevent injury.

Watch for signs and symptoms of secondary cancers.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to contact prescriber if he vomits shortly after taking drug.

Tell patient to immediately report easy bruising or bleeding, which may signal low platelet count.

• Advise patient to report changes in urination pattern.

• Instruct patient to avoid exposure to people with infections, because drug may make him more susceptible to infection.

Caution female of childbearing age to use reliable contraception and to immediately report suspected or confirmed pregnancy.

• Advise female patient to inform prescriber if she is breastfeeding.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

• Advise patient to minimize GI side effects by eating small, frequent servings of healthy food.

• Inform patient that drug may cause hair loss.

• Tell patient he'll undergo frequent blood testing during therapy.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

lo·mus·tine

(lō-mŭs'tēn),
An antineoplastic agent.
Synonym(s): CCNU

lomustine

CCNU Oncology An alkylating nitrosurea derivative used to treat lymphomas and other CAs Adverse effects BM suppression

lo·mus·tine

(lō-mŭs'tēn)
1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea; an antineoplastic agent.

lo·mus·tine

(lō-mŭs'tēn)
An antineoplastic agent.
References in periodicals archive ?
Jenkins et al., "Benefit from procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in oligodendroglial tumors is associated with mutation of IDH," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.
In the Avastin with lomustine arm, 22% of people discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions compared with 10 % of people in the lomustine arm.
Antineoplastic treatment was instituted using lomustine (50 mg/[m.sup.2] PO) every 3 weeks with prednisolone at initial dose of 2 mg/kg SID with weekly reduction until 0.5 mg/ kg per dose.
Kotb, "Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of anticancer drug lomustine in biological fluids using in situ mercury film coated graphite pencil electrode," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.
However, for recurrent disease, 26 patients received chemotherapy with lomustine (CCNU).
Moreover, other EGFR inhibitors like temozolomide, lomustine, erlotinib, and gefitinib, are approved by the FDA for the treatment of glioma [10, 11].
There are currently 75 drugs associated with pulmonary fibrosis, including amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, carmustine, lomustine and nitrofurantoin.
The bird showed partial response to treatment with chlorambucil, lomustine, prednisone, L-asparaginase, and whole-body radiation, with neither evidence of adverse effects nor clinical signs of disease.
Previous case reports have described treatment with vincristine, lomustine, and prednisone, (4) vincristine alone, (12) and procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine.
The patient underwent surgery and radiation therapy, followed by first line chemotherapy with temozolomide and second line chemotherapy with lomustine, vincristine, and procarbazin, due to disease progression.
When a fourth growth appeared in a recent MRI, they switched her treatment to a drug called lomustine (CCNU), which she started on Thursday.
An oligodendroglioma with those molecular alterations has a better response to PCV (procarbazine hydrochloride, lomustine [CCNU; CeeNU], and vincristine sulfate) chemotherapy.