1988) and lolitrems (Prestidge and Gallagher, 1988) have also been shown to deter insect predation.
Up to five-fold and six-fold variation was measured in lolitrem B and peramine respectively, depending on the stage of the season, among 17 perennial ryegrass plants collected in old New Zealand pastures (Ball et al.
lolii but free of lolitrem B and with a low level of ergovaline.
Lolitrem B and peramine mean annual concentrations in the leaf were correlated with ELISA values among 17 perennial ryegrass plants (r = 0.
Interrelationships between Acremonium lolii, peramine, and lolitrem B in perennial ryegrass.
Seasonal levels of peramine and lolitrem B in acremonium lolii-infected perennial ryegrass, p.
1986), and lolitrems, the cause of ryegrass staggers syndrome (Gallagher et al.
Ryegrass staggers: The presence of lolitrem neurotoxins in perennial ryegrass seed.
Ryegrass staggers: Isolation of potent neurotoxins lolitrem A and lolitrem B from staggers-producing pastures.
Paxilline biosynthesis by Acremonium loliae: A step towards defining the origin of lolitrem neurotoxins.
The major toxins identified to date are alkaloids, including the ergopeptine alkaloids, indole-isoprenoid lolitrems
, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids (Porter, 1994).