But just as we need more than mere status-based protections in closely held corporations because the ordinary protections for minorities (exit, intermediation, etc.) do not work in that context, we may need more than ordinary equal protection review in direct democracy where the structural protections for minorities (such as intermediation, veto points, repeat play, and logrolling
) are absent.
(449) It reasoned that "a proposal to trade one public act for another, a form of logrolling
, is fundamentally unlike the swap of an official act for a private payment." (450) In an apparent endorsement of transactional politics, the court singled out logrolling
and stated that "[governance would hardly be possible without these accommodations." (451) It declined to find in the statutes "a rule making everyday politics criminal." (452)
The complicated nature of American agricultural policy is not just an example of poor draftsmanship or an object lesson in the vagaries of logrolling
, it is a boon to those who are the direct beneficiaries.
First, the logrolling
and vote trading in Congress was more apparent than with prior pieces of legislation, likely due to the visibility created through its lengthy debate in the Senate.
(153) This grant of power is only available for substantive constitutional violations, as single-subject violations, like logrolling
, taint the entire act.
Were both houses of Congress to utilize the deem-and-pass procedure, the dangers inherent in logrolling
would become acute.
So common was this practice that it got a popular name, universally understood, as logrolling
. A still more objectionable practice grew up, of putting what is known as a rider (that is, a new and unrelated enactment or provision) on the appropriation bills, and thus coercing the executive to approve obnoxious legislation, or bring the wheels of the government to a stop for want of funds.
(9) One of the ways in which the already rich can serve the poor is to work to ensure that our trade with poor countries really is free--free from political logrolling
by politicians desperate for votes, free from opportunistic lobbying by industries such as US sugar and cotton, and free from the harm to the global poor that well-intentioned rich Northerners like us can sometimes bring.
As Heller and Hills recapitulate Madison's argument, a large and diverse polity such as a big city is likely to feature a wide variety of pressure groups that forge shifting governing coalitions through logrolling
(i.e., trading votes with other pressure groups).
The research team found logrolling
to be an effective technique for resolving partial impasse.
Quadro 1--Principais abordagens contidas na teoria da escolha publica ABORDAGEM DESCRICAO LOGROLLING
Termo usado para denotar a troca de apoio entre politicos; quando os partidos sao baseados em principios de lealdade e disciplina partidaria, a maior parte da atividade de logrolling
e desenvolvida no interior dos partidos; quando, ao contrario, os partidos sao fracos e seus membros indisciplinados, as atividades de logrolling
tendem a ser intensas e muitas vezes sem principios.
And the horse trading, logrolling
that goes on with earmarks tends to bloat the entire government.