The proposed method is further evaluated with ISCAS benchmark circuits, which are composed of various

logic gates listed in Table 2.

These computing elements are a generalization of the common

logic gates used in conventional computing and, since they operate by comparing their total input with a threshold, this field of research is known as threshold logic.

[f.sub.Q](q), [A.sub.i] (SETi) and GP(SETi) denote a probability density function for the collected charge q, a region of the faulty site of the

logic gate g and the logical generation probability for a SETi from gate i, respectively.

The power estimation of

logic gates from a standard CMOS library could be easily done: a SPICE test bench for each

logic gate should be created and its input capacitance, power dissipation capacitance and leakage current should be obtained.

Various molecular events correspond to different signal inputs of the "AND"

logic gate, which determine the structure state of the engineered tweeter and further activity of DNAzyme.

Gong, "Ultracompact all-optical

logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities," Journal of Nanophotonics, vol.

Kotb, All-Optical

Logic Gates Using Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, 2012.

3: Visualization of NAND

logic gate (a) A=B=0, (b) A=1, B=0, (c) A=0, B=1 and (d) A=B=1

Seven parts of the textbook focus in turn (but not in order) on the seven levels of abstraction that computers operate at: application, high-order language, assembly, operating system, instruction set architecture, microcode, and

logic gate. Throughout he emphasizes how the level impact each other and work together.

From PDP results as listed in Table 6, hybrid configuration is better than nonoptimized CNFET for PDP term for NAND

logic gate. But optimized CNFET is better than the hybrid configuration for all basic

logic gates.

With modified versions of transistors used in smartphones, tablets and desktop computers, engineers have built the first quantum

logic gate in silicon for performing quantum computations.

Digital electronics are more efficient than the analogue ones in the areas of lessening or removing noise because it uses the principle of quantization to regenerate the signal at each

logic gate (Chen, 2005).