Most behavioral response variables were logarithmically
transformed to satisfy model assumptions.
The ratio was logarithmically
transformed to remove variance problems associated with creating a ratio of two random variables.
The strain sweep consists of measuring the stress response to a series of logarithmically
increasing oscillatory strains (0.1% to 1000%) at a fixed frequency (0.5 rad/sec).
Finally, in the absence of any theoretical guidance concerning the appropriate functional form, the independent variables were alternatively entered linearly and logarithmically
Because indexes typically use B-tree type data structures, the number of additional I/O operations necessary to service a query will grow logarithmically
in the number of unique records (or index terms derived from these records); there is also a linear component due to the increased size of the hit lists.
Second, we used a paired t-test based on logarithmically
transformed data to test whether species that reused nests had larger immune defenses.
Furthermore, it is not clear, a priori, that clams should respond logarithmically
Extended calculations with logarithmically
transformed medians by means of t-tests and with non-transformed medians by means of U-tests (some results of which are given in endnotes to Table I) have shown that differences of medians between families, subfamilies, or tribes as listed in Table I are probably real if they amount to at least 1-2 chloroplasts, provided that the medians compared are based on 10 or more genera in both members of comparison.
Plasma NA and A levels were logarithmically
transformed as they were not normally distributed, before multiple linear regression analysis was performed.
"We are capable of increasing production logarithmically
without changing location," Grant explains.
When the changes in both quantities and prices are measured logarithmically
, there is no difference whatsoever between the point elasticity and the arc elasticity of the constant-outlay curve.
This index is a logarithmically
defined index that employs an average of the weights for the two periods being considered.(6)