Most behavioral response variables were

logarithmically transformed to satisfy model assumptions.

The ratio was

logarithmically transformed to remove variance problems associated with creating a ratio of two random variables.

The strain sweep consists of measuring the stress response to a series of

logarithmically increasing oscillatory strains (0.1% to 1000%) at a fixed frequency (0.5 rad/sec).

Finally, in the absence of any theoretical guidance concerning the appropriate functional form, the independent variables were alternatively entered linearly and

logarithmically.

Because indexes typically use B-tree type data structures, the number of additional I/O operations necessary to service a query will grow

logarithmically in the number of unique records (or index terms derived from these records); there is also a linear component due to the increased size of the hit lists.

Second, we used a paired t-test based on

logarithmically transformed data to test whether species that reused nests had larger immune defenses.

Furthermore, it is not clear, a priori, that clams should respond

logarithmically to sound.

Extended calculations with

logarithmically transformed medians by means of t-tests and with non-transformed medians by means of U-tests (some results of which are given in endnotes to Table I) have shown that differences of medians between families, subfamilies, or tribes as listed in Table I are probably real if they amount to at least 1-2 chloroplasts, provided that the medians compared are based on 10 or more genera in both members of comparison.

Plasma NA and A levels were

logarithmically transformed as they were not normally distributed, before multiple linear regression analysis was performed.

"We are capable of increasing production

logarithmically without changing location," Grant explains.

When the changes in both quantities and prices are measured

logarithmically, there is no difference whatsoever between the point elasticity and the arc elasticity of the constant-outlay curve.

This index is a

logarithmically defined index that employs an average of the weights for the two periods being considered.(6)