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If a number, x, is expressed as a power of another number, y, that is, if x = yn, then n is said to be the logarithm of x to base y. Common logarithms are to the base 10; natural or Napierian logarithms are to the base e, a mathematical constant.
[G. logos, word, ratio, + arithmos, number]
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From this, it can be seen that reduction in the logarithmic decrement leads to an increase in the amplitude of vibrations, which often can be critical for the protected element.
8 that the logarithmic decrement of the damping of horizontal natural oscillations of mass increased from 0.13 to 0.83.
The drying constant k of the Midilli and Logarithmic models tended to decrease with the increment in layer thickness for the same temperature, except at 80[degrees]C for the Midilli model.
is of order zero, but its logarithmic order is infinite [7].
In order to discuss GSLT, horizon entropy of the universe can be taken as one quarter of its horizon area [82] or power law corrected [83-85] or logarithmic corrected [86] forms.
The [ME.sub.m] and [NE.sub.m] estimated by logarithmic regression between the HP and MEI were 607 and 448 kJ/kg of [BW.sup.0.75]/d in the ICM, and those in the CSM were 619 and 462 kJ/kg of [BW.sup.0.75]/d.
The Jaky model curves deviated from the measured points, and Logarithmic model followed.
This logarithmic norm is often used as measure of stability and asymptotic decay in analytic and numerical studies concerning to ordinary differential equations (see [14,20]).
where K is the feedback matrix to be designed and Q(*) is a logarithmic quantizer defined as
Figure 2 shows the timing chart of the gold price logarithmic return sequence.
The changing rules of the vibration frequency versus different values of R/h are illuminated in Figure 4(a), where both the horizontal and the longitudinal coordinates are given in the logarithmic form.
Kakavas [10] expressed the strain energy density function in terms of the second and third invariants of the logarithmic strain tensor with three independent material parameters.