Activation of pontine and medullary motor inhibitory regions reduces discharge in neurons located in the locus coeruleus and the anatomical equivalent of the midbrain locomotor region.
Mild electrical stimulation of pontine tegmentum around locus coeruleus reduces rapid eye movement sleep in rats.
Effects of locus coeruleus lesions upon cerebral monoamine content, sleep-wake fulness states and the response to amphetamine in the cat.
GABA release in the locus coeruleus as a function of sleep/wake state.
Activity of norepinephrine containing locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats anticipates fluctuations in the sleep-waking cycle.
Martins, PhD, PharmD, the researchers chemically stimulated the locus coeruleus in rats while simultaneously playing them a sound paired with a food reward.
However, chemically stimulating the locus coeruleus led to 100 percent neural activity in the auditory cortex, even in the absence of the same triggering sounds.
According to Froemke, the results clearly demonstrate that the memory of the sound and its associated reward was encoded by the locus coeruleus, which helped improve the rats' ability to perceive the sound.
In another set of experiments, the investigators paired a specific sound with a series of mild shocks to the animals and found that when the shocks stopped, but the sound continued to play, their locus coeruleus response remained the same, at 20 neuron spikes per second.
Froemke says he next plans to investigate how information is encoded within the locus coeruleus and to identify which cells are activated by cochlear implants and in animal models of PTSD.