Over the last several decades, the surgical treatment of vulvar cancer has become more conservative, as tumor margins are more important rather than the actual removal of the organ.1 Van der Zee et al, in a study of 403 patients reported that in early stage vulvar cancer patients with a negative sentinel node had a 3-year survival of 97% with minimal morbidity from sentinel localization procedure
..2 The ability to identify bilateral inguinal SLNs appears to be related to proximity to the midline.
Patients who underwent CT-guided localization procedure
applying Compont[R] medical adhesive prior to VATS at our institution were prospectively included from March 2015 to May 2017.
For many institutions, the advantages of RSL have outweighed the regulatory disadvantages and it has become the localization procedure
of choice at many institutions around the world.
When the localization procedure
is based only on acoustic signals, we can discuss array geometry calibration .
The sound localization procedure
took place under virtual acoustic conditions and the subjects were required to listen to 3D sound stimuli (narrowband and wideband sounds and white noise) based on their own HRTFs.
WSNs may be deployed in hostile environments and the localization procedure
is vulnerable to many localization-specific attacks .
However, the construction of an analytical model is not necessary for the localization procedure
However, it takes 280 s to complete the segmentation and localization procedure
, which is not adapted to the real-time nature of ultrasound imaging.
All nodes transmit a single packet, randomly offset in time and with a node specific and globally known preamble, in a standard tracking or localization procedure
. Each packet is time-stamped with respect to the local clock at the transmitting node.
To verify the accuracy and repeatability of the localization plate with markers, a laboratory phantom was used for implementing the localization procedure
. After making detailed measurements one can conclude the following: the measured accuracy of the repeatability process of the localization plate with markers has the same order of magnitude as the accuracy of robot repeatability.