Based on technology, the porcine vaccines market has been segmented into inactivated vaccines, live attenuated vaccines
, toxoid vaccines, recombinant vaccines, conjugate vaccines, and DNA vaccines.
(4) Live Attenuated Vaccines
Should Be Avoided in Immunosuppressed Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease and Those Receiving Biologic Therapy and Targeted Synthetic DMARDs.
A recurrent benign form of 6th nerve palsy, a rarer still palsy, has been described in the literature, and it is of presumed inflammatory etiology, associated with live attenuated vaccines
, or following viral and bacterial infections such as Varicella zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, or Coxiella burnetii [5, 6].
Live attenuated vaccines
are prepared by sufficiently attenuating infectious organisms by passaging them in either the heterologous host system or in the cell culture.
It has involved the extensive use of both the live attenuated vaccines
that can revert to a wild type phenotype, and inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) whose production in the main currently requires the growth of very large amounts of virulent wild type poliovirus," they explain, noting that the vaccines are therefore a possible source for re-emergence of poliomyelitis following eradication (PLoS Pathog.
Since the 1960s, live attenuated vaccines
have been developed against polio (oral, 1962), measles (1963), rubella (1969), chickenpox (1995) and a number of other bacterial or viral pathogens.
Although these IgG biologicals will clear the infants' systems after several months of life (generally by 8 months), another concern is for how their presence in the early months impacts neonatal vaccination, specifically live attenuated vaccines
such as MMR (measles, mumps and rubella), BCG for tuberculosis, oral polio, rotavirus vaccine, and the intranasal influenza vaccine.
"Because of increased efficacy and fewer adverse reactions, the vaccine containing the Enders-Edmonston vaccine strain replaced previous vaccines: inactivated Edmonston vaccine (available in the United States from 1963 through 1967), live attenuated vaccines
containing the Edmonston B (available in the United States from 1963 through 1975), and Schwarz strain (available in the United States from 1965 through 1976).
A 2011 study stated that primary vaccination with live attenuated vaccines
in patients receiving TNF antagonists should be avoided at all times (7).
* Avoid all travel-specific live attenuated vaccines
. The exception is that yellow fever vaccination can be acceptable for the clinically stable immunosuppressed patient traveling to an endemic area.
Thus, this strategy potentially allows for the generic development of live attenuated vaccines
against many new viral pathogens, with reduced costs and the potential single dose induction of long-term immunity.