Factors causing inflammation such as phospholipase inducible tumor necrosis factor, lipooxygenase
, leukotrienes, thromboxane, elastase, and collagenase were found to be inhibited by curcumin the active ingredient of C.
Furthermore, proanthocyanidin has also been reported to have anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, cardioprotective, and immune system stimulant properties by inhibiting phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and lipooxygenase
enzymes (22, 23).
Nettle leaf has cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase
that may slow the enzymes that trigger inflammation.
Flavonoids inhibit the expression of isoforms of cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and lipooxygenase
, which are responsible for the production of NO, prostanoids, and leukotrienes, as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, or adhesion molecules .
Studies have shown that they also inhibit lipid peroxidation, thrombocyte aggregation, capillary permeability, and various enzymatic systems including cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase
. In addition, diosmin inhibits formation of free oxygen radicals both in vivo and in vitro .
The dexamethasone acts by inhibiting phospholipase enzyme, thereby blocking oxygenase and lipooxygenase
pathway and reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins thereby reducing edema and pain .
Lichochalone A is a COX as well as a lipooxygenase
inhibitor, also allowing for anti-inflammatory effects.
In addition to this, CAPE is a lipooxygenase
inhibitor with antioxidant properties (Natarajan et al., 1996; Sud'ina et al., 1993).
The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, and blockade of the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG), but they have no effect in the lipooxygenase
enzyme activity, responsible for the synthesis of LTs (10, 11), which are the most important inflammatory mediators in gouty arthritis (10).
A study showed that etomidate increases the responsiveness to norepinephrine in an endothelium-dependent way, which is partially independent of the action of nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), cyclooxygenase products, lipooxygenase
products, angiotension-II and Endothelin (15).
modulation to reserve carcinogenesis.
The result of the decrease in arachidonic acid for eicosanoid formation and competition with the n-3 FAs for the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase
enzyme sites generally results in decreased production of the 2-series prostanoids, such as thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostaglandin E2.