ART-associated side-effects Adverse event Associated drugs and causes Lipoatrophy Mitochondrial toxicity with inflammatory changes Associated with d4T, ddI, AZT Lipohypertrophy
Combination of ageing and treatment of HIV Not associated with individual/ class ART Dyslipidaemia PI-based therapy, d4T Increased total cholesterol, low- density lipoprotein (LDL) and high- density lipoprotein (HDL) Gynaecomastia Associated with EFV, Growth of breast mechanism unclear.
There was mild lipohypertrophy
at the insulin injection sites.
A similar questionnaire-based dietary analysis of 136 Croatians in the first year of cART during the same period focused on lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy
assessed by self-report and physical exam.
2008) How to prevent and manage lipohypertrophy
at injection sites.
The syndrome is characterised by body habitus changes, most commonly a combination of lipoatrophy (LA) (loss of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), usually in the face, limbs and buttocks) and lipohypertrophy
(LH) (visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, gynaecomastia and, in some cases, lipomatosis, especially in the dorsocervical area, known as a 'buffalo hump').
They were identified within the lipohypertrophy
associated with his subcutaneous insulin administration .
, or a combination of the two may occur.
As HIV-infected patients are living longer, a substantial number may develop metabolic complications associated with HIV, such as abdominal lipohypertrophy
," said Dr.
The site should be rotated as repeated injections at one site can cause lipohypertrophy
which reduces the rate of absorption.
The most common adverse events were hypoglycemia, lipohypertrophy
and tonsillar hypertrophy.
The lipodystrophy syndrome is most commonly characterised by lipohypertrophy
of the ileo--caecal valve is classified as a variant of normal (1).