However, treatment is associated to adverse reactions and HIV associated lipodystrophy syndrome characterized by dyslipidemia, glycemic alterations and morphologic alterations as lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy
Children and adolescents living with HIV undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) often exhibit changes in body fat such as lipoatrophy (loss), lipohypertrophy
(central accumulation), or a combination of both.
It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy
Lipoatrophy (loss of peripheral subcutaneous fat from the face, arms, legs and buttocks, coupled with pronounced blood vessels in the arms and legs), can occur alone or in combination with lipohypertrophy
(fat accumulation on the dorsocervical and abdominal regions).
Examination findings including presence of lipohypertrophy
in the patients were documented.
ART-associated side-effects Adverse event Associated drugs and causes Lipoatrophy Mitochondrial toxicity with inflammatory changes Associated with d4T, ddI, AZT Lipohypertrophy
Combination of ageing and treatment of HIV Not associated with individual/ class ART Dyslipidaemia PI-based therapy, d4T Increased total cholesterol, low- density lipoprotein (LDL) and high- density lipoprotein (HDL) Gynaecomastia Associated with EFV, Growth of breast mechanism unclear.
One area of diabetes care sometimes overlooked by pharmacists involves lipohypertrophy
, an abnormal accumulation of fat underneath the surface of the skin that is most commonly seen in people who receive frequent and multiple daily injections, such as patients with type 1 diabetes.
There was mild lipohypertrophy
at the insulin injection sites.
No US measurements were made over areas of visible or palpable lipohypertrophy
presents as benign tumor-like swelling of fatty tissue at the injection site and is a result of local anabolic effects of insulin with promotion of fat and protein synthesis.
A similar questionnaire-based dietary analysis of 136 Croatians in the first year of cART during the same period focused on lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy
assessed by self-report and physical exam.
2008) How to prevent and manage lipohypertrophy
at injection sites.