Clinical presentation of CVI includes the presence of enlarged dilated veins in the lower limbs, skin trophic modifications related to vein malfunction including pigmentation, dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis
, atrophy, edema, and venous ulcers.
More severe signs include thrombophlebitis, hyperpigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis
, ulceration and bleeding from attenuated vein clusters.
[USPRwire, Thu Sep 27 2018] Unattended varicose veins can cause one severe pain through swelling, ulceration, venous eczema, and lipodermatosclerosis
. Treating them through appropriate measures becomes quite crucial.
Casini et al., "Skin iron deposition characterises lipodermatosclerosis
and leg ulcer," European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, vol.
The exact prevalence of calciphylaxis is difficult to assess because of the difficulty in clinically distinguishing it from other overlapping cutaneous conditions that may be included in the differential diagnosis such as calcinosis cutis, warfarin-induced skin necrosis, primary vasculitides, ischemia from peripheral arterial occlusive atherosclerosis, cholesterol embolism syndrome, lipodermatosclerosis
, and other forms of panniculitis .
Among the chronic injuries types are venous leg ulcers, common in the elderly and resulting from chronic venous hypertension, characterized by persistent inflammation, hemosiderin deposition, and lipodermatosclerosis
There is hypertrophy of overlying epidermis giving polypoid appearance, known as lipodermatosclerosis
The commonest complications observed in these nine patients were haematoma and lipodermatosclerosis
in three patients each.
The examination of the leg should include palpation of pulses and a search for the signs of venous hypertension, including varicose veins, hemosiderin pigmentation, varicose eczema, atrophie blanche, and lipodermatosclerosis
. The ulcer examination should include site, size, appearance, wound base, exudates level, and surrounding skin.
A VLU biopsy was performed in a total of 45 patients who had not used antibiotics and presented signs of CVI, such as edema, varicose veins, hyperpigmentation, and lipodermatosclerosis
Venous-related skin changes may also develop, including hyperpigmentation in the perimalleolar region secondary to haemosiderin deposition, lipodermatosclerosis
with scarring, thickening of the skin secondary to fibrosis in the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue, and atrophie blanche characterised by circular whitish and atrophic skin surrounded by dilated capillaries and hyperpigmentation.
Twenty patients duration >6 wk, (4) presence of classical with 32 chronic lower signs of venous insufficiency such as extremity venous ulcers edema, varicosities, lipodermatosclerosis
, eczema, and elephantiasis nostra, (1) and (5) controlled systemic arterial hypertension (diastolic arterial pressure <95 mm Hg).