The [d.sub.B] value calculated through equation (2), points out that the presence of artepillin C slightly decreased the average thickness of the bilayers, going from 50.2 [+ or -] 0.4 to 48.0 [+ or -] 1.0 [Angstrom], reinforcing the idea that the decrease in the CU as shown by DSC experiments could be a consequence of a slight increase in the fluidity of the lipid bilayer
caused by a loss in the lipid packing, probably affected by the presence of the protonated species of artepillin C even more embedded in the lipid membrane compared to deprotonated species, in agreement with previous studies (23).
Simulation of pore formation in lipid bilayers
by mechanical stress and electric fields.
Other components such as saponins in interaction with phytosterols and squalene form insoluble complexes, which fix the architecture of the lipid bilayer
and generate pores that participate in the permeability of cell membranes [22,23].
Using the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z), the six layers of the lipid bilayer
are assumed to have the coordinates (a cos [??], a cos [??], z) and (a cos [??], a cos [??], z - 37.36) for the upper and lower head groups, respectively.
The Wang lab first successfully tested the motorized molecule's ability to open a synthetic lipid bilayer
vesicle, allowing dyed solution to get inside.
Preparation of liposomes, composed of tetraether lipids and DOTAP, was conducted at 5 mol% to take advantage of the stabilising effect of tetraether lipids, which are incorporated into the lipid bilayer
In the "belt formation" model, two or more apolipoprotein molecules A-I (apoA-I) arrange like a belt around alkyl chains of the lipid bilayer
resulting in a discoidal structure .
In the present study, an HTS approach for searching for effective CPEs was established based on using SCLLs as a model membrane mimicking the primary skin-penetration domain of the SC lipid bilayer
. Different concentrations of ethanol were used in the first step, because this is a well-known CPE contained in many topical and transdermal formulations.
The biological lipid bilayer
membrane, or in short "biomembrane," is a fundamental building block of the cell.
Arg-54 in TM1 may also be susceptible to membrane voltage since it is embedded in lipid bilayer
in the modeled structure .
This means it can change its phase from an amorphous insulator to a crystalline conductor when hit with a strong enough electric pulse - thus acting like both, a resister and capacitor, and mimicking, to a certain extent, the behavior of biological neurons' lipid bilayer
The system of generating lipid bilayer
structures as well as membrane-bound protein structures, CHARMM-GUI Lipid Builder [sup] was used to build a Cx50 protein/membrane complex for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.