Radiographic working length was determined by using the John Ingle technique in which root length was calculated from preoperative periapical radiographs than according to the size of the root length on the preoperative radiograph, a file was inserted into root canal within 2mm of the radiographic apex and diagnostic radiograph was taken with a file in the canal, which has a rubber stop properly adjusted to tip of the buccal or lingual cusp
as a coronal reference point.
The lingual cusp
height of corresponding teeth on the left and right cheek tooth rows differed significantly in the skulls with different rostral orientation.
Two cusps type premolar has one large and functional buccal cusp where as lingual cusp
is very small and usually blunt.
Maxillary lingual cusp
and the lower fossa act as a mortar and pestle in chewing.
The premolar consists of two labial cusps and one lingual cusp
that are somewhat equal in suture.
palatal cusp of maxillary teeth and buccal cusp of mandibular teeth) and sometimes palatal incline of maxillary buccal cusp & buccal incline of lingual cusp
. Examination of the study cast for the evaluation of lingual cuspal relationship may provide additional benefits.
Talon weak, talonid strong formed of extra lingual cusp
. The male canines are robust upward curving teeth with open roots, while in the female, it is a two rooted downward pointing tooth, like as in L.
Other traits were added to the beta version (cusp 5 UM1; multiple lingual cusps
LP2; UP1 root number), bringing the total number of traits to 21.
Only the lingual cusps
of the maxillary posterior teeth are in contact with the central fossa during centric occlusion.
The lower first molar has three buccal and two lingual cusps
on its rectangular occlusal surface, the smallest being distobuccal.
The labial cusps are higher than the inner lingual cusps
. The protocone is slightly extended forward than the hypocone, so anterior side of the tooth is wider than the posterior one.