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Selective inbreeding to perpetuate certain desired qualities or characteristics in a strain of livestock.
2. the physical act of mating.
3. capable of being used for reproduction.
4. controlled propagation of animals or plants.
a sexually entire bitch to be used for breeding.
bulls used for paddock mating.
1. the animals are mated in such a way that the offspring can be guaranteed to be the progeny of the animals concerned, the number of matings can be counted and the use of the animals for breeding is tightly controlled. See also hand mating.
2. controlled mating in that the occurrence of the estrus cycle, the probability of ovulation and fertilization and the termination are controlled by manipulation of the dam's internal hormonal environment.
behavior likely to attract an animal of the opposite sex to mate. Used almost exclusively in relation to birds.
postpartum examination of cow to ascertain readiness for next mating; includes rectal examination of uterus and ovaries, vaginoscopic examination, possibly sample of cervical mucus for laboratory examination; in bulls the examination is for breeding soundness.
herds used for breeding in contrast to fattening herds.
lifetime history of all events in a female's reproductive history, including postpartum and pre-mating examinations.
incurred during mating and as a result of it. Examples are penile hematoma and vaginal rupture.
breeding of animals with the same blood lines but not closely related.
optimal breeding time
the time during the estral period when a mating is most likely to be fertile.
bodies which advise on and assist in breeding programs, e.g. artificial insemination and embryo transfer centers, cow evaluation and mating advisory services, breed society classification programs, dairy herd improvement programs and the like.
arrangement of matings on a farm to produce the desired effect in terms of cows in milk at a particular season, lambs being born when the weather is most clement, lowering the micron count of the wool by mating ewes with a low micron ram and so on.
pyramid breeding system
see pyramid breed structure.
see breeding history.
those parts of the year in which animals mate. This may be artificially arranged by humans. In animals that are not controlled there are periods of the year when they are more sexually active.
the ability of the animal to mate and to initiate reproduction. In agricultural animals where the objective is to limit the number of sires, breeding soundness also embraces the ability to mate effectively on a large number of occasions over a brief period of time.
breeding soundness examination
conducted on behalf of intending vendors and purchasers, or before a limited breeding season in which high reproductive efficiency is desired. Should include perusal of results of previous reproductive performance, physical examination of the animal, especially of the genitalia, collection and examination of samples where these are an integral part of an examination for specific diseases of reproduction, e.g. blood test for brucellosis, preputial or vaginal swab examination for campylobacteriosis, and in the male a collection and examination of semen and a serving capacity test. The latter has not received universal acceptance, at least not in the form in which it is presently performed.
livestock used for breeding.
a system of recording reproductive events on a disk which rotates once each year. The relationship between the expected calvings, the number of infertile matings and the required milk flow and feed need is readily understood from the overall pattern on the disk.