The most commonly prescribed antibiotics during hospitalization were third generation cephalosporins for 201 (49%) patients, fluoroquinolones for 153 (37%) patients, lincosamides
for 98 (24%) patients and first generation cephalosporins for 96 (23%) patients.
Of these, erm(A) is inducibly expressed (1) and generally confers low-level resistance to macrolides, whereas lincosamides
and streptogramins B ([MLS.sub.B]), which share overlapping binding sites, remain active against erm(A)-harboring S.
Macrolides and lincosamides
represent the alternative in cases of therapeutic failure and of patients allergic to betalactams, although human and bovine GBS strains resistant to those drugs have been described in the last decades, varying from 2.0% to 54.0%.7,8 Likewise, rates of tetracycline-resistant GBS isolates from human and bovine hosts have been increasing.
All isolates tested were susceptible to all non-[beta]-lactam antibacterial agents, comprising glycopeptides, lipopeptides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, lincosamides
, oxazolidinones, rifampins, streptogramins, glycylcyclines, folate pathway inhibitors, aminoglycosides, and fosfomycin.
HA-MRSA may contain resistance elements for numerous antibiotic classes, including macrolides, lincosamides
, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides.
Small plasmids carrying vga(A) or vga(C) genes mediate resistance to lincosamides
, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A antibiotics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from swine.
(3) Conversely, GBS resistance to alternative therapy, such as macrolides and lincosamides
, has emerged in the last decades.
Antimicrobial drug resistance against macrolides (erythromycin), lincosamides
(pirlimycin), and tetracycline was determined as described (10).
In terms of individual antibiotic class use, all statistically significant differences found favored the HCA-MRSA group, including use of penicillins, aminoglycosides, lincosamides
One of the clinical MRSA isolates recovered from the lesion and typed as ST398-spa-t011 showed resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, and lincosamides
and harbored 5 antimicrobial resistance genes.
Multidrug-resistant isolates were defined as MRSA isolates that were resistant to more than 3 of 8 representative antimicrobial drug classes: macrolides (erythromycin), lincosamides
(clindamycin), quinolones (levofloxacin or moxifloxacin), tetracyclines, sulfa drugs (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), aminoglycosides (gentamicin), glycopeptides (vancomycin), and rifampin.
(1,2,3) Although [beta]-lactam antibiotics are the main compounds used to treat infections due to staphylococci, macrolides, lincosamides
e streptogramins type B ([MLS.sub.B]) antibiotics are also widely used to treat staphylococcal infections.