Limonoids are distinctive secondary metabolites of the Citrus essential oils, derived from limonene
compound and showed large number of pharmacological and biological activities [15-16]
In contrast, [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-myrcene, limonene
, bornyl acetate, geranyl acetate, and [beta]-caryophyllene were inactive against Y.
Co-encapsulation of fish oil with phytosterol esters and limonene
by milk proteins.
The use of the silk to encapsulate limonene
provides a fully biodegradable, biocompatible encapsulation system which demonstrates the potential for limonene
stabilization at elevated temperatures.
a-pinene and AY-pinene were ordered from product supplier of Alfa Aesar company in Beijing China.
For reference standards we used [alpha]-pinene, 99 percent pure, 0.85 g [mL.sup.-1] density (Acros Organic, Somerville, New Jersey); [beta]-pinene, 97 percent pure, 0.86 g [mL.sup.-1] density (Alpha Aesar, Ward Hill, Massachusetts); terpineol, 90 percent pure, with a density of 0.93 g [mL.sup.-1] (Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp., New Brunswick, New Jersey); limonene
, 97 percent pure, 0.842 g [mL.sup.-1]; and (-)-frarcs-caryophyllene, 98.5 percent pure, 0.902 g [mL.sup.-1] (Sigma Aldrich, Milwaukee, Wisconsin).
The strains that showed the greatest resistance to d-limonene and capable of using limonene
as sole carbon source were identified by 16s rRNA gene sequencing technique.
The results revealed a unique constituent in major proportion (>90%) and five principal compounds: limonene
, [beta]-ocymene, [delta]-3-carene, [alpha]-pinene, and myrcene.
Shampoos, soaps, perfumes, domestic cleaners, sunscreens, and massage creams are among the household products likely to contain limonene
(2) mixture of [alpha]-pinene (24 mg), [beta]-pinene (57 mg), myrcene (14 mg), and limonene
(6 mg) in 100 mL hexane resembling the secretion of Z.