The average limit-setting score (M = 3.31, SD = 0.75) revealed that parents reported moderate-to-high levels of engagement in parenting practices related to limit setting. Finally, the mean parental risk perceptions score (M = 2.87, SD = 0.77) was slightly lower, indicating that on average parents reported not often worrying about the risks of T2DM for their youth.
Pearson product moment correlations (r) among adolescent zBMI, adolescent age, parent BMI, parent risk perceptions, parent limit setting, and parental nurturance revealed a significant positive correlation between adolescent zBMI and parental risk perceptions (r = 0.327, P < 0.01), indicating that as adolescent zBMI increased, parental perceptions of diabetes risk also increased.
Parental limit setting was also a significant predictor ([beta] = -0.24, P < 0.05), with lower levels of limit setting associated with higher zBMI values.
As the relationship between parental nurturance and adolescent zBMI was in the direction opposite of what was hypothesized, a post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore the potential relationship between parent nurturance and parent limit setting. Specifically, the idea that the influence of family nurturance on adolescent zBMI varies as a function of parental limit setting was explored.
Paternal limit setting comes from the Limits scale that was developed for use in the Detroit Area Study (Alwin, 1997).
Prior to all regression analyses, the independent variables of inter-parent conflict, father distress, father warmth, father limit setting, father-child relationship quality, child sex, and child ethnicity were centered.
In model 2, we entered father distress, inter-parent conflict, father warmth, and father limit setting, thus testing for their unique contribution to child well-being over and above the contribution of the control variables.
The hypothesized relation between father limit setting and child well-being was not supported for the sample as a whole.