ligamentum flavum


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ligamentum flavum

A ligament that binds adjacent vertebral laminae to each other.
See also: ligamentum
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
DISCUSSION: Although uncommon, ossification or calcification of the ligamentum flavum as a cause of thoracolumbar myelopathy has been extensively described in Eastern populations, particularly in individuals of Japanese descent (1-7).
Among these 25 cases of CSM we found disc herniation in 23 cases, posterior osteophytes in 9 cases, facet joint arthropathy in 5 cases, coexistent OPLL in 1 case, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy in 6 cases and spondylolisthesis in 2 cases.
Component Young's Poisson's ratio modulus (MPa) Cortical bone 12,000 0.3 Cancellous bone 100 0.2 Endplate 3,000 0.25 Anterior longitudinal 15 Posterior longitudinal 10 Ligamentum flavum 8 Interspinous 10 Ligamentum flavum 15 Intertransverse 10 Capsular 7.5 Nucleus pulposus 1.0 0.499 Annulus fiber 4.2 0.45 Fusion mass (Ti) 110,000 0.28 Component Cross-section ([mm.sup.2]) Cortical bone Cancellous bone Endplate Anterior longitudinal 40 Posterior longitudinal 20 Ligamentum flavum 30 Interspinous 40 Ligamentum flavum 40 Intertransverse 1.8 Capsular 30 Nucleus pulposus Annulus fiber Fusion mass (Ti) Table 2.
The pain level and muscle strength of the patients were significantly improved compared with before surgery.21 The surgery had only a small impact on the disk structure, and could be completed under local anesthesia with a small incision, which could minimize the potential damage that might occur in general anesthesia.22,23 Compared with MED, PTED has a smaller degree of muscle damage and does not destroy the vertical segment of spinalis; protect small joints, without violations of the ligamentum flavum; can use electric coagulation hemostasis, with less blood loss.24 As regards the length of surgical incision, the amount of bleeding, postoperative bedridden time and hospital stay, the PTED group was significantly superior to the MED group.
The spinal needle should be oriented "down the barrel" parallel to the X-ray beam and advanced slowly under intermittent fluoroscopy through the subcutaneous tissues into the paraspinal musculature but superficial to the ligamentum flavum (Figure 6).
Folding the ligamentum flavum when standing will give compression to the spinal canal so that it worsens the stenosis that occurs, the complaint may improve when the patient bends down so that the ligamentum flavum is stretched again.
In MD operations, the microscope was brought close to the field, the ligamentum flavum was removed using a curette, a minimal laminectomy was conducted, and the ligamentum flavum was opened by cutting from the lateral side and then minimally removed from the medial facet.
It is possible to identify the sacrum, laminae, ligamentum flavum, posterior dura, interlaminar space, intrathecal space, cauda equina and vertebral body/posterior longitudinal ligament/anterior dura complex using this approach.
Positive MRI was defined as lumbar spine showing trefoil appearance on axial views as a result of a bulging intervertebral disc ventrally, hypertrophied facet joints laterally and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy dorsally.
Various pathological changes of the ligamentum flavum have been identified, including hypertrophy, calcification, ossification, and cyst formation that may compress the spinal cord.
The less common findings were Modic changes which were seen in 26 patients (19.11%), facet arthropathy seen in 5 patients (3.6%), and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy 5 (3.65%) (Table 3).
LSS is characterized by narrowing of the spinal canal, which is caused by disc herniation combined with osteophytes, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, and mechanical compression of the spinal nerve roots [5, 6].

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