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A salt or ester of levulinic acid.
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Summary: The market for ethyl levulinate is expected to witness a surge in the growth owing to increase in the demand for bio-based solvents
Chao et al., "Direct catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to methyl levulinate: synergy of solid Bronsted acid and Lewis acid," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol.
Inj Intacal-IM (b) (Calcium levulinate) @ 15 ml IM, inj Dextrose 5% @ 2 liters i/v, inj.
[69.] Christensen, E., Williams, A., Paul, S., Burton, S., "Performance and Properties of Levulinate Esters as Diesel Blend Components," Energy Fuels 25(ll):5422-5428, 2011.
Water (Aqua), glycerin sodium levulinate, sodium anisate 3
The objective of scientists at Utah State University was to compare the antilisterial effectiveness of sodium levulinate (4-oxopentanoic acid), a five-carbon organic acid with GRAS status; sodium lactate; and sodium diacetate in refrigerated RTE meats.
Liu, "Solid acid catalyzed glucose conversion to ethyl levulinate," Applied Catalysis A, vol.
[12] Jackim, R., 1973, Influence of lead and other metals on fish alpha-amino levulinate dehydrase activity.
"Our hope is that this blend of levulinate esters and biodiesel would perform better over a wider range of temperatures than biodiesel," Mascal said.