levofloxacin


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Related to levofloxacin: ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin

antibacterial

 [an″te-, an″ti-bak-tēr´e-al]
1. destroying or suppressing the growth or reproduction of bacteria.
2. an agent having such properties.

levofloxacin

Iquix, Levaquin, Novo-Levofloxacin (CA), Oftaquix (UK), Quixin, Tavanic (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Fluoroquinolone

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

Fluoroquinolones for systemic use are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in patients usually over age 60, with concomitant use of corticosteroids, and in kidney, heart, and lung transplant recipients.

Action

Inhibits the enzyme DNA gyrase in susceptible gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, interfering with bacterial DNA synthesis

Availability

Ophthalmic solution: Quixin-0.5% (5 mg/ml), Iquix-1.5%

Premixed solution for injection: 250 mg/50 ml, 500 mg/100 ml, 750 mg/150 ml

Solution for injection (concentrated): 500 mg/20 ml

Tablets: 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg

Indications and dosages

Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

Adults: 500 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 7 days

Community-acquired pneumonia

Adults: 500 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 7 to 14 days, or 750 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 5 days

Nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae; complicated skin and skin-structure infections

Adults: 750 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 7 to 14 days

Acute bacterial sinusitis caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis

Adults: 500 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 10 to 14 days or 750 mg P.O. or I.V. q 24 hours for 5 days

Uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections

Adults: 500 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 7 to 10 days

Complicated urinary tract infections; acute pyelonephritis caused by E. coli

Adults: 250 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days or 750 mg P.O. or I.V. q 24 hours for 5 days

Uncomplicated urinary tract infections

Adults: 250 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 3 days

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

Adults: 500 mg I.V. or P.O. q 24 hours for 28 days.

Conjunctivitis

Adults and children ages 1 and older: One or two drops of 0.5% ophthalmic solution into affected eye q 2 hours while awake on days 1 and 2 (up to eight times daily); then one or two drops q 4 hours while awake on days 3 through 7 (up to four times daily)

Corneal ulcers

Adults and children ages 6 and older: On days 1 to 3, one or two drops of 1.5% ophthalmic solution instilled into affected eye(s) q 30 minutes to 1 hour while awake and q 4 to 6 hours after retiring; thereafter, one or two drops q 1 to 4 hours while awake until treatment completion

Inhalational anthrax (postexposure)

Adults and children ages 6 months and older weighing more than 50 kg (110 lb): 500 mg P.O. or I.V. q 24 hours for 60 days

Children ages 6 months and older weighing less than 50 kg (110 lb): 8 mg/kg P.O. or I.V., not to exceed 250 mg/dose q 12 hours for 60 days

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug, its components, or other quinolones

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• bradycardia, acute myocardial ischemia, prolonged QTc interval, cirrhosis, renal impairment, underlying CNS disease, uncorrected hypocalcemia
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children younger than age 18 (except in ophthalmic use).

Administration

• Be aware that oral and I.V. dosages are identical.
• Give parenteral form by I.V. route only. Drug isn't for I.M., subcutaneous, intrathecal, or intraperitoneal use.
• To prepare I.V. infusion, use compatible solution, such as 0.9% sodium chloride injection, dextrose 5% and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, dextrose 5% in water, or dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's solution.
• Infuse over 60 to 90 minutes, depending on dosage. Don't infuse with other drugs.

Avoid rapid or bolus I.V. administration, because this may cause severe hypotension
• Flush I.V. line before and after infusion.
• Give oral doses 2 hours before or after sucralfate, iron, antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, or multivitamins with zinc.
• Give oral form without regard to food, but don't give with milk or yogurt alone.
• Be aware that the two ophthalmic preparations have different indications.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, headache, insomnia, seizures

CV: chest pain, palpitations, hypotension

EENT: photophobia, sinusitis, pharyngitis

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, flatulence, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginitis

Hematologic: lymphocytopenia

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia

Musculoskeletal: back pain, tendon rupture, tendinitis

Skin: photosensitivity

Other: altered taste, reaction and pain at I.V. site, hypersensitivity reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Interactions

Drug-drug.Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium, didanosine (tablets), iron salts, sucralfate, zinc salts: decreased levofloxacin absorption

Cimetidine: interference with levofloxacin elimination

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: increased risk of CNS stimulation and seizures

Drug-diagnostic tests.Glucose: increased or decreased level

Lymphocytes: decreased count

EEG: abnormal findings

Drug-food.Concurrent tube feedings, milk, yogurt: impaired levofloxacin absorption

Drug-herbs.Dong quai, St. John's wort: phototoxicity

Fennel: decreased levofloxacin absorption

Drug-behaviors.Sun exposure: phototoxicity

Patient monitoring

• Check vital signs, especially blood pressure. Too-rapid infusion can cause hypotension.
• Closely monitor patients with renal insufficiency.
• Monitor blood glucose level closely in diabetic patients.

Assess for severe diarrhea, which may indicate pseudomembranous colitis.

Watch for hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue drug immediately if rash or other signs or symptoms occur.

Watch for signs and symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture.

Patient teaching

Tell patient to stop taking drug and contact prescriber if he experiences signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction (rash, hives, or other skin reactions) or severe diarrhea (which may indicate pseudomembranous colitis).

Instruct patient to stop taking drug and notify prescriber immediately if tendon pain, swelling, or inflammation occurs.
• Instruct patient not to take with milk, yogurt, multivitamins containing zinc or iron, or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium.
• Teach patient proper use of eye drops. Tell him to avoid touching applicator tip to eye, finger, or any other object.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other activities that require mental alertness until CNS effects of drug are known.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

levofloxacin

/le·vo·flox·a·cin/ (-flok´sah-sin) a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for systemic and ophthalmic use.

levofloxacin

(lē′vō-flŏk′sə-sĭn)
n.
A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic, C18H20FN3O4, of the fluoroquinolone class.

levofloxacin

an antiinfective.
indications It is used to treat acute sinusitis, acute chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, uncomplicated skin infections, complicated urinary tract infections, and acute pyelonephritis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to quinolones and photosensitivity prohibit its use.
adverse effects Life-threatening effects are anaphylaxis, multisystem organ failure, hemolytic anemia, pseudomembranous colitis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Other adverse effects include hypoglycemia, hypersensitivity, dizziness, anxiety, encephalopathy, paresthesia, chest pain, palpitations, vasodilation, eosinophilia, lymphopenia, pneumonitis, flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vaginitis, crystalluria, rash, and pruritus. Common side effects are headache, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, and photosensitivity.

levofloxacin

Levaquin® Infectious disease An advanced-generation, broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone with improved activity against streptococci and anaerobes Indications Community-acquired URIs, acute maxillary sinusitis, bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, skin, UTIs Adverse events Restlessness, N&V, diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia. See Fluoroquinolone.

levofloxacin

An antibiotic used to treat mild to moderately severe respiratory and urinary tract infections. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Tavanic.

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
14,19) Levofloxacin has enjoyed similar widespread use as ciprofloxacin.
The quinolones ofloxacin and levofloxacin must be used with caution in adolescent girls who have not completed their skeletal maturation, said Dr.
The results from this analysis of our Phase 2 clinical trial of oral solithromycin in CABP patients suggest that the comparable early clinical response rates of solithromycin versus levofloxacin may be enhanced by anti-inflammatory properties.
The phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial randomized 509 outpatients aged 40 years or older to oral therapy with 150 mg of cethromycin per day or 500 mg of levofloxacin per day.
The lack of halogenation at position 8 indicates that gatifloxacin, like ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, may decrease a patient's risk of developing phototoxicity.
This study showed that coadministration of cation-containing antacids and levofloxacin use could lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
From all the regions combined, the proportion of ETEC-resistant strains was 24% to levofloxacin, 20% to ciprofloxacin, 18% to azithromycin, 17% to rifaximin, and 5% to ceftriaxone.
levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) have been recommended by numerous national health authorities and international organizations for treating acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in adults (1).
A case of torsades de pointes is reported following administration of amiodarone concurrent with the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin.