Abnormal CUS findings Findings Total number Survivors Deaths (N=23), n (N=8), n (N=15), n Mild changes 9 5 4 PV flares only 1 1 0 Grade 1 or 2 IVHs 8 4 4 Moderate/uncertain changes 7 3 4 Grade 3 IVH (unilateral) 2 2 0 Cerebral oedema' 5 1 4 Severe changes 7 0 7 Bleeds with PVL 1 0 1 Bleeds with cortical infarcts 1 0 1 and PVL Bilateral grade 4 IVHs with 2 0 2 hydrocephalus and PVL Bleeds with dilated ventricles 3 0 3 CUS = cranial ultrasound; PV = periventricular; IVH = intraventricular haemorrhage; PVL = periventricular leukomalacia
. Table 4.
The mother of three -- who also shares Hart's twin brother Hayes, and daughter Aspen, 2 1/2 , with husband Jim Edmonds -- revealed in early July that her son has "minor Periventricular Leukomalacia
on both sides of his brain" and is "at risk for being diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy."
The five-year-old from Downpatrick, Co Down, was born 10 weeks early on May 8, 2014, and was later diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia
and cerebral palsy.
The primary etiologies that caused neurologic deficits in 28 infants were as follows: periventricular leukomalacia
(PVL) (15/28), hypoxia (12/28), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (4/28), and lobar hematoma (1/28).
Frequent causative factors for CVI are hypoxicischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and periventricular leukomalacia
 Periventricular leukomalacia
(PVL) is an ischaemic injury to the white matter that often accompanies grade III to IV IVH and is associated with multiple neurological abnormalities.
Neurobiology of periventricular leukomalacia
in the premature infant.
About 60% of the patients with XGS exhibit abnormal MRI and brain malformations including thinningofthecorpuscallosum, (7) hypomyelination, leukomalacia
, and less frequently a cyst in the posterior fossa.
He also suffers from a brain condition called periventricular leukomalacia
(PVL) and Pierre Robin syndrome, which causes facial malformations.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed global atrophy, leukomalacia
, and thinning of the corpus callosum [Figure 1]a.
Hydrocephalus, cerebral abnormalities, intracranial hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia
were the most frequent findings in order of occurence.
However, this strategy may lead to deleterious effects such as increased maternal infection (11), brain growth deficits, periventricular leukomalacia
, poor attention and cognitive performance (12), and low neuropsychiatric functioning (13).