Damage to the white matter of the brain caused by exposure to chemicals, radiation, and certain viruses, including HIV. The chemical agents include, but are not limited to, alcohol, carbon monoxide, cocaine, toluene, and some cytotoxic drugs.
Confusion, disinterest, lethargy, memory losses, and psychiatric symptoms are common in early stages. Profoundly ill patients may display stupor or coma. Language disturbances are unusual.