Patterns of cerebral blood flow reduction in patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis
The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score, that reflects the size of the cerebral ischemia , presence of a hyperdense artery sign and leukoaraiosis
, were assessed by a radiologist.
1) On imaging, subcortical vascular dementia is characterized by leukoaraiosis
, which are hypointense spherical-like lesions on CT and hyperintense lesions in periventricular areas on T2 MRI.
If capillary glycation occurs mainly in the brain, a condition called leukoaraiosis
or coalescing tiny (lacunar) strokes leading to scaring of the gray matter in the brain occurs, and memory loss/cognitive dysfunction and/or small strokes (lacunar infarcts) will develop.
Patients whose neuroimaging data revealed significant leukoaraiosis
, hydrocephalus or brain herniation associated with their stroke or other alterations outside age norms were also excluded.
191 These results confirm the findings of a 2010 study which reported that a comprehensive TCM intervention can improve cognitive functioning and associated symptoms of individuals with mild cognitive impairment associated with leukoaraiosis
leads to lower white matter blood flow affecting the brain's vascular watershed area (Eldehni & McIntyre, 2012) and is considered a risk factor for the development of depression, dementia, stroke, and advanced vascular ageing in the hemodialysis population (McIntyre, 2010).
Imaging and laboratory examinations play an essential role in diagnosis of CADASIL: the key diagnostic features include (1) Leukoaraiosis
and multiple small infarcts presented bilaterally in deep white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, and pons on MRI; (2) granular and osmiophilic substance layers around the vascular smooth muscles in the brain, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerves, and skin verified by electron microscopy; and (3) NOTCH3 mutations confirmed by DNA analysis .
White matter lesions on MRI Vascular disease Leukoaraiosis
Vasculitis CADASIL Infections HIV HSV VZV JCV Miscellaneous Sarcoidosis Adrenoleukodystrophy ADEM MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; CADASIL = cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy; HSV = herpes simplex virus; VZV = varicella zoster virus; JCV = John Cunningham virus; ADEM = acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Patients (A,B,C) and control participant (D) A B C D Age (years) 58 33 30 32 Gender male female male male Kinship father daughter son son Education 10 15 15 15 (years) Profession bank administrative unskilled unskilled teller worker worker Stroke-like yes yes no no episodes Onset 49 years 22 years Migraine yes yes no no Epileptic yes no no no seizures Hypertension no no no no Diabetes yes no no no Vascular risk smoker smoker smoker smoker factors Skin biopsy + + + - MRI with yes yes yes no leukoaraiosis
Degree of WM 3 2 1 0 lesions (1) Note.
Among the topics they discuss are imaging methods and study of higher brain functions, human visual motion organization, Chinese character processing, and aspects of Alzheimer's disease; studies of face perception, language processing and word priming, memory, the kinetic visual field, and visual interpolation ability and leukoaraiosis
in healthy subjects; tactile pattern delivery devices in early detection of Alzheimer's disease; and the use of donepezil, Huperzine A, and memantine with Alzheimer's patients.
According to result of research from Hopital Notre Dame in Montreal, two silent factors - leukoaraiosis
and silent brain infarcts - can be really tricky and dangerous.