We evaluated transcriptomic and epigenomic data (epidemiological and clinical) in the range of environmental exposures for three chemicals: a) benzene and other leukemogens (McHale et al.
* Adverse outcome networks (AON) to identify mechanistic commonalties among leukemogens and lifestyle factors (diet and stress) that alter leukemia risks (U.S.
* AONs, once verified for accuracy, are useful in predicting specific hazards [e.g., benzene and other known leukemogens (hematotoxicity) (U.S.
Using bioinformatic approaches to identify pathways targeted by human leukemogens. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:2479-2503.
Although experimental data are limited, the disposition and biological activities of [.sup.210]Po in human and animal tissues are consistent with a role as a myelotoxicant and leukemogen. Those adult leukemias epide-miologically associated with chronic exposure to cigarettes or contaminated drinking water have cytogenetic characteristics that are typical of an alpha emitter such as [.sup.210]Po.
[.sup.210]Po is equally plausible as a leukemogen in children.
The workers were considered to have no other substantial workplace exposures; therefore, the possibility of biased potency estimates due to other leukemogens was small.
Other known or suspected leukemogens are present in cigarette smoke, including urethane (30,35), 1,3-butadiene (32,36), radioactive elements (37,38), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (30,39), and styrene (30,40); benzene is therefore unlikely to be independently responsible for all smoking-induced leukemia.
The Pliofilm cohort is well suited to minimize the possible confounding effects of other leukemogens because the industrial process did not involve exposure to other potential carcinogens.
Throwing away radiation dose (i.e., lagging), supposedly because of "dose wasting," is common in some research groups that apparently are not aware that the thrown-away dose may have stimulated the body's natural defenses (7) and thereby protected some members of the population from leukemia induction by other leukemogens
. In such cases the dose is not wasted!