With the survey study conducted by Leiphart et al., at the end of stereotactic surgical approaches performed on 413 major depression patients, anterior cingulotomy was found to produce better results as compared to anterior capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy and limbic leucotomy
. Furthermore, it was propounded that interventions on single anatomic locations produced better results than interventions on combined anatomic locations (4).
In the following years, lobotomy and leucotomy
interventions started to fall out of favour due to the neurological and psychiatric sequela they left, as well as to numerous studies which questioned their effectiveness.
Within a few years, Freeman, Watts and a few others altered the Moniz prefrontal leucotomy
, with varied results.
In her next note, Lena tells of a suicide attempt and reveals that she has persuaded her beloved and devoted father Victor and sister Carla that the drastic leucotomy
operation is her only chance.
of patients (and rate per 1000) Register Matched patients controls Type of care/treatment (n = 559) (n = 559) Psychiatric inpatient care 47 (84.0) 11 (19.7) Outpatient or day-hospital care only 16 (128.6) 8 (14.3) Electro-convulsive therapy 17 (30.4) 2 (3.6) Prefrontal leucotomy
3 (5.4) 0 Lithium treatment 4 (7.2) 1 (1.8) Neuroleptic drugs 22 (39.3) 6 (10.7) Anti-depressants 31 (55.5) 12 (21.5) Discussion
Psychiatry has been vulnerable to adopting the latest ideas, for example the idealization of just neuroleptics, and in the past leucotomy
(49) Frame narrowly escaped being obliged to have a prefrontal leucotomy
is a modern, more sophisticated lobotomy.
ECT use in the 1930s and frontal leucotomy
in the 1940s understandably intensified fear toward psychiatric therapies.
"But I still am interested in the leucotomy
. I wondered, Elaine (if you have any time) if you could find out a little about it for me and what it exactly is and does, and what people have had it recently, what they experience?
Target: Fair substantia innominata, just inferior to the caudate nucleus Limbic leucotomy
. Target: anterior Fair cingulotomy combined with subcaudate tractotomy Deep brain stimulation.
The rare operation - called a leucotomy
- has been carried out only 17 times in the last two years.