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rare cause of hypoglycemia occurring following ingestion of leucine. Seen especially in infants.
Synonym(s): leucine-sensitive hypoglycemia
an abnormally low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The condition may result from an excessive rate of removal of glucose from the blood or from decreased secretion of glucose into the blood. Overproduction of insulin from the islets of Langerhans or an overdose of exogenous insulin can lead to increased utilization of glucose, so that glucose is removed from the blood at an accelerated rate. Tumors of the islands of Langerhans can increase the production of insulin and result in rapid removal of glucose from the blood. Because the liver is the source of most of the glucose entering the blood while an animal is fasting, damage to the liver cells can result in impaired ability to convert glycogen into glucose. If secretion of the adrenocortical hormones, especially the glucocorticoids, is deficient, the protein precursors of glucose are not available and the blood glucose level drops as the liver's glycogen supply is depleted.
In animals the clinical picture of hypoglycemia includes muscle weakness, lethargy and recumbency. Ketosis and acetonuria are usual. Profound hypoglycemia or a very rapid fall in blood sugar causes convulsions and final coma.
hunting dog hypoglycemia
a stress-related syndrome seen in dogs that are fasted before a hunt, later experiencing exhaustion and hypoglycemic seizures.
occurs in young puppies, mainly of toy breeds, causing weakness, muscle tremors, ataxia and seizures. Often precipitated by excitement, anorexia, hypothermia or gastrointestinal disorders. The cause is unclear, but believed to be incomplete development of metabolic pathways for glucose production. Affected puppies usually become normal with maturity.
orally administered leucine causes a significant further hypoglycemia in patients with an existing hyperinsulinism due to islet cell tumor.
see neonatal hypoglycemia.
the hypoglycemia induced by insulin fails to return to the normal level in the required time, usually because of hyperinsulinism, or hypopituitarism or hypoadrenalism.