lethal dose


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Related to lethal dose: therapeutic index, Lethal Dose 50

dose

 [dōs]
the quantity to be administered at one time, as a specified amount of medication or a given quantity of radiation.
absorbed dose that amount of energy from ionizing radiations absorbed per unit mass of matter, expressed in rads.
air dose the intensity of an x-ray or gamma-ray beam in air, expressed in roentgens.
booster dose an amount of immunogen (vaccine, toxoid, or other antigen preparation), usually smaller than the original amount, injected at an appropriate interval after primary immunization to sustain the immune response to that immunogen.
curative dose (CD) a dose that is sufficient to restore normal health. See also median curative dose.
divided dose fractionated dose.
effective dose (ED) that quantity of a drug that will produce the effects for which it is administered. See also median effective dose.
erythema dose that amount of radiation that, when applied to the skin, causes erythema (temporary reddening).
fatal dose lethal dose.
fractionated dose a fraction of the total dose prescribed, as of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to be given at intervals, usually during a 24-hour period.
infective dose (ID) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will cause infection in susceptible subjects. See also median infective dose and tissue culture infective dose.
lethal dose (LD) that quantity of an agent that will or may be sufficient to cause death. See also median lethal dose and minimum lethal dose.
loading dose a dose of medication, often larger than subsequent doses, administered for the purpose of establishing a therapeutic level of the medication.
maintenance dose the amount of a medication administered to maintain a desired level of the medication in the blood.
maximum tolerated dose tolerance dose.
maximum permissible dose the largest amount of ionizing radiation that one may safely receive within a specified period according to recommended limits in current radiation protection guides. The specific amounts vary with age and circumstance.
median curative dose (CD50) a dose that abolishes symptoms in 50 per cent of test subjects.
median effective dose (ED50) a dose that produces the desired effect in 50 per cent of a population.
median infective dose (ID50) that amount of pathogenic microorganisms that will produce demonstrable infection in 50 per cent of the test subjects.
median lethal dose (LD50) the quantity of an agent that will kill 50 per cent of the test subjects; in radiology, the amount of radiation that will kill, within a specified period, 50 per cent of individuals in a large group or population.
median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will produce infection in 50 per cent of cell cultures inoculated.
minimum lethal dose
1. the amount of toxin that will just kill an experimental animal.
2. the smallest quantity of diphtheria toxin that will kill a guinea pig of 250-gm weight in 4 to 5 days when injected subcutaneously.
reference dose an estimate of the daily exposure to a substance for humans that is assumed to be without appreciable risk; it is calculated using the no observed adverse effect level and is more conservative than the older margin of safety.
skin dose (SD)
1. the air dose of radiation at the skin surface, comprising the primary radiation plus backscatter.
2. the absorbed dose in the skin.
threshold dose the minimum dose of ionizing radiation, a chemical, or a drug that will produce a detectable degree of any given effect.
threshold erythema dose (TED) the single skin dose that will produce, in 80 per cent of those tested, a faint but definite erythema within 30 days, and in the other 20 per cent, no visible reaction.
tissue culture infective dose (TCID) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will produce infection when inoculated on tissue cultures; used with a numeric qualifier.
tolerance dose the largest quantity of an agent that may be administered without harm. Called also maximum tolerated dose.

le·thal dose (LD),

the dose of a chemical or biological preparation (for example, a bacterial exotoxin or a suspension of bacteria) that is likely to cause death; it varies in relation to the type of animal and the route of administration; when followed by a subscript (generally "LD50" or median lethal dose), it denotes the dose likely to cause death in a certain percentage (for example, 50%) of the test animals; median lethal dose is LD50, absolute lethal dose is LD100, and minimal lethal dose is LD05.

lethal dose (LD)

the amount of toxin that produces death in all members of a species population within a specified period of time. See also median lethal dose.

le·thal dose

(LD) (lē'thăl dōs)
The dose of a chemical or biologic preparation (e.g., a bacterial exotoxin or a suspension of bacteria) that is likely to cause death; it varies in relation to the type of animal and the route of administration; when followed by a subscript (generally LD50), it denotes the median LD likely to cause death in a certain percentage (e.g., 50%) of the test animals; median LD is LD50, absolute lethal LD is LD100, and minimal LD is LD05.
[L. dosis letalis]

lethal dose (LD)

the amount of a treatment (e.g. viral inoculation, insecticide) that induces death in a laboratory animal in a standard time. Because the response to treatment is often nonlinear, it is more conventional to measure the amount of a treatment that causes 50% mortality in a standard time, the so-called LD50. In some tests the treatment dosage is fixed and the duration of the treatment period is varied, producing an estimate of lethal time and an LT50 .

le·thal dose

(LD) (lē'thăl dōs)
Amount of chemical or biologic preparation (e.g., a bacterial exotoxin or a suspension of bacteria) likely to cause death; varies in relation to type of animal and route of administration; when followed by a subscript (generally "LD50" or median lethal dose), denotes amount likely to cause death in a certain percentage (e.g., 50%) of the test animals; median lethal dose is LD50, absolute lethal dose is LD100, and minimal lethal dose is LD05.
[L. dosis letalis]
References in periodicals archive ?
The mental stability of patients requesting lethal doses is a legitimate concern, but no evidence suggests that such a change is needed.
Mice were then injected with a lethal dose of snake venom and given a specific dose of antibodies.
Liverpool John Moores university is carrying out the inquiry after Edna Alker, 91, was given a lethal dose of potassium chloride by JMU student Rebecca Riley at Whis-ton hospital in 2003.
Although the law allows doctors to prescribe lethal doses of painkillers to patients, many have already stated they will not do so, according to the Associated Press (AP).
Preston Crown Court had heard how the doctor would visit the victims in their homes and administer a lethal dose of morphine.
However, the narrow difference between a sub-toxic and lethal dose of endotoxin makes it unsafe to use outside of a carefully controlled, experimental situation.
Their injury to the rule of right and reason was clear: They gave the state of Texas the green light to lead Herrera to the death chamber and inject a lethal dose of poison into his body.
For toxicologists, defining the toxicity of a substance focuses on determining the lethal dose for 50% of rodents under well-defined conditions, even though life itself is rarely carried out under anything like the ideal.
Narendra Sinha, 67, is accused of administering a lethal dose of morphine to a woman while he worked as alocum.
A TEENAGE girl died after taking a lethal dose of her mother's anti- depressant drugs before going to bed.
A HEROIN addict who risked the life of a teenage girl by giving her pounds 10 to drink a potentially lethal dose of methadone has avoided jail.
A LOCUM doctor, who gave a lethal dose of morphine several times the recommended level to a pensioner,did so because of his patient's weight, a court heard yesterday.