were cultured in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) medium with 10% normal rabbit serum (Gibco, Carlsbad, CA, USA) at 30[degrees]C for 7 days.
Detection of pathogenic leptospires
by real-time quantitative PCR.
The MAT was performed with a panel of live leptospires
All the pathogenic leptospires
were formerly classified as members of the species Leptospira interrogans; the genus has recently been reorganised and pathogenic leptospires
are now identified in several species of Leptospira.
presence of carrier animals, environment suitable for the survival of leptospires
and behavioural and occupational factors of people that predispose them to leptospirosis are common, the magnitude and nature of these factors vary from community to community.
Risk factors associated with antibodies to leptospires
in inner-city residents of Baltimore: a protective role for cats.
Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of pathogenic leptospires
in the lake; however, the scientists were not able to identify the specific animal source.
A severely under-diagnosed disease, leptospirosis is transmitted between animals in spiral-shaped bacteria called leptospires
live in the kidneys of many mammalian hosts, including rodents, insectivores, and livestock.
The PCR amplified product was sequenced along with those from a few reference strains and isolates and confirmed as a 285 bp region of sec Y gene specific to leptospires
Flooding increases risk for dengue infection (by providing mosquito breeding sites) and leptospirosis (by disseminating leptospires
in the environment and increasing human-animal contact).
Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that the physical environment of the study area was favourable for prolonged survival of leptospires