One researcher also reported that juvenile ladyfish were cannibalistic, preying upon late-metamorphic leptocephali.
Thus, it is assumed that ladyfish spawn offshore given that most leptocephali are collected in offshore coastal waters.
ability to regulate salinity) are undeveloped in leptocephali, they probably spawn offshore because leptocephali aren't able to regulate the dramatic environmental changes found in typical estuarine and inshore waters.
Hence, if spawning occurs in late-summer or early-fall, then it is probable that it would take approximately 3 to 5 months for ladyfish leptocephali larvae to migrate from offishore waters to protected low salinity nearshore estuaries (i.
Distribution of ladyfish (Elops saurus) and bonefish (Albula vulpes) leptocephali in Louisiana.
In late July, on a national holiday noted for eel feasts, Japanese newspapers heralded the team's success in finding Japanese eel leptocephali.
His work cemented the connection between eels and their young (scientists once considered leptocephali to be a group of species separate from eels) and firmly established the eel as a long-distant migrant.
rostrata leptocephali captured in the Gulf of Maine, and his largest individual of 49 mm TL (which would shrink during metamorphosis) was 130 d.
Absorption of increments during metamorphosis (Cieri and McCleave, 2000) is possible, but our studies could not shed any light on this proposed phenomenon because all leptocephali had metamorphosed before reaching North Carolina.
1988) postulated that Albula leptocephali
from the Gulf of California have a larval duration of 6-7 months; during winter and spring months the larvae actively move into shallow, lagoon nurseries in the first hours of a nocturnal flood tide, where they metamorphose into juveniles (Pfeiler 1984).
Early in the last century, the Danish oceanographer Johannes Schmidt succeeded in collecting small anguillid leptocephali in the Sargasso Sea thousands of kilometers away from their growth habitats in Europe and North America, which indicated that the two species of Atlantic fresh-water eels make remarkably long spawning migrations (1).
Because of these studies, species-specific genetic markers can be used to identify all species of anguillid leptocephali (9).