For the diagnosis of the disease and follow up of patients, different laboratory methods are employed like the smear, the biopsy, and the lepromin
1) Pregnancy or breast feeding; 2) Smear negative and lepromin
positive [but smear negative and lepromin
negative were included]; 3) History of pulmonary tuberculosis, and/or other systemic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, renal, hepatic or cardiac diseases; 4) HIV positivity or symptoms suggestive of HIV infection such as recurrent infection.
Each animal was lepromin
skin tested with heat-killed armadillo-derived M.
16) The lepromin
test, on the other hand, measures the potential of an individual in building up granulomatous response to the mixture of M.
negative, where as BCG vaccination decreases the risk.
In this timing set, HIV infection before leprosy, cellular immune response represented by lepromin
reaction, lymphoproliferation and INF-gamma release were relatively affected in both lepromatous and tuberculoid forms.
Effect of levamisole therapy on lepromin
reaction in lepromatous leprosy cases.
Therefore, reactivity to lepromin
is not used for diagnosis, but has a prognostic value.
4) These evolving classifications were based on clinical features with some support from histological and prognostic features and lepromin
A nerve biopsy and lepromin
test would be required to know the exact location of these patients in the spectrum.
18) In a study on lepromin
responsiveness, Leiker reported that not all lepromatous patients are completely anergic to lepromin
, as a weak response to lepromin
had been observed in many such cases and it seemed that the diffuse lepromatous variety was the only truly anergic type of leprosy.
Alcais and coworkers (2000) showed that NRAMP1 was linked to lepromin
reaction, (45) whereas another group worked with the microsatellite of the promoter region and found that a combination between some genotypes and the lepromin
negative reaction could contribute to susceptibility.