As they age, the small lead chromate
particles are completely reduced to chromium oxide, while larger ones maintain a core of lead chromate
that is coated in a shell of chromium oxide.
> iron oxide > titanium dioxide > phthalocyanine blue), as well as their concentration.
However, numerous studies investigating particulate Cr(VI) compounds such as calcium chromate, strontium chromate, lead chromate
and zinc chromate observed significant increases in lung tumours.
Inorganic yellow pigments based on bismuth provide heat stability requisite for engineering thermoplastics to replace lead chromates
The intake of lead chromate
, added as a colourant to chilli powder, results in epigastricpain, anaemia, nausea and constipation due to lead toxicity.
Lead compounds may be employed in the production of colored plastics (in which lead chromates
are used as pigment) and in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics (in which 2%-5% lead salts [including lead oxides, phthalate, sulfate, or carbonate, depending on the desired quality of the final product] are used as stabilizers).
However, ECHA's two specialist committees dealing with authorizations--one covering health and environmental risks and the other socio-economic issues both recommended that the lead chromates
be authorized for 12 years with a review after seven years of data from health and environmental monitoring of the products.
are an example of a class of pigment which ECHA has labeled as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) on the grounds that they can be carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic for reproduction (CMR).
The substitution principle particularly applies with regards to the more hazardous powders such as those containing TGIC, TMA and lead chromate
pigments in particular.
As of 2015, the company says it is no longer producing any pigments containing lead chromate
These 10 most reported carcinogens were arsenic, arsenic trioxide, asbestos, benzene, benzidine, lead chromate
, sodium arsenate, sodium arsenite, sodium dichromate, and vinyl chloride (3,4).
During 1983, 24 industries used lead chromate
(National Occupational Exposure Survey of CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], unpublished data, 1991); during May 1991, 30,600 U.