law


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law

 [law]
a uniform or constant fact or principle. For specific named laws, see under the name.
law of independent assortment the members of gene pairs segregate independently during meiosis; see also mendel's laws.
inverse square law the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation.
law of segregation in each generation the ratio of (a) pure dominants, (b) dominants giving descendants in the proportion of three dominants to one recessive, and (c) pure recessives is 1:2:1. This ratio follows from the fact that the two alleles of a gene cannot be a part of a single gamete, but must segregate to different gametes. See also mendel's laws.

law

(law),
1. A principle or rule.
See also: principle, rule, theorem.
2. A statement of fact detailing a sequence or relation of phenomena that is invariable under given conditions.
See also: principle, rule, theorem.
[A.S. lagu]
Government A regulation, statute, enactment, act, bill, decree, edict, bylaw, rule, ruling, ordinance, dictum, command, order, directive, pronouncement, proclamation, dictate, fiat
SciSpeak A uniform principle or constant

law

A uniform principle or constant. See Boyle's law, Charles' law, Farr's law of epidemics, Fick's law of diffusion, Frank-Starling law, Gown's law, Gresham's law, Hardy-Weinberg law, Harvard law, Heart law, Leborgne's law, Moore's law, Murphy's law of genetics, Natural law, Natural sexual law, Ohm's law, Periodic law, Roemer's law, Sutton's law, Talion law Government A legislative act that compels compliance. See AIDS disclosure law, Annie's law, Anti-dumping law, Antikickback law, Antisubstitution law, Antitrust law, Baby Doe law, Bad baby law, Chinese Law on Maternal & Infant Health Care law, Company doctor law, Due process law, Good Samaritan law, Heart law, Megan's law, Preemptive tobacco control law, Prompt payment law, Roemer's law, Seat belt law, Son of Sam law, Stark law, Sunset law.

law

(law)
1. A principle or rule.
2. A statement of a sequence or relation of phenomena that is invariable under the given conditions.
See also: principle, rule, theorem
[A.S. lagu]

law

In science, a statement of facts or principles which is considered invariable under the given conditions having been tested and tried.
Abney's law The total luminance of an area is equal to the sum of the luminances that compose it.
Alexander's law An increase in the intensity of a jerk nystagmus when the eyes move in the direction of the fast phase.
all or none law The response in a nerve fibre to any stimulus strong enough to produce a response is always of the same amplitude. However, different nerve fibres have action potentials with different amplitudes. An increase in the intensity of the stimulus yields only an increase in the frequency of nerve impulses (or action potentials). Syn. all or nothing law.
Aubert-Förster law See Aubert-Förster phenomenon.
Bloch's law The luminance L of a stimulus required to produce a threshold response is inversely proportional to the duration of exposure t of the stimulus, i.e.
Lt = C
where C is a constant. This law is only valid for exposure t below about 0.1s.
Bunsen-Roscoe law In photochemistry, the product of the intensity of the light stimulus and the duration of exposure is a constant. Syn. law of reciprocity.
cosine law See diffusion.
Descartes' law See law of refraction.
Donders' law For any determinate position of the line of fixation with respect to the head there corresponds a definite and invariable angle of torsion.
Draper's law An effect is produced in a medium only by that portion of the spectrum which is absorbed by the medium. The effect may be thermal, chemical or the production of fluorescence. Syn. Grotthus' law.
Emmert's law The apparent size of a projected after-image varies in proportion to the distance of the surface on which it is projected. The law can be expressed by the following relationship h/H = d/D, where h is the linear size of the object, H the apparent size of the projected after-image, d the object's distance from the observer and D the distance between the observer and the surface on which the after-image is projected. It follows from the above expression that H = hD/d, i.e. the greater the distance of the projected image the larger its apparent size.l. of equal innervation See Hering's law of equal innervation.
Fechner's law The intensity of a sensation S varies as the logarithm of the intensity I of the stimulus, i.e.
S = k log I
where k is a constant. However, in some conditions this law is not valid and Stevens' law (or power law) is more appropriate. This stipulates that the intensity of a sensation S varies as the intensity of the stimulus I to the power of x, i.e.
S = kIx
where x is a constant which depends on the stimulus. See magnitude estimation.
Fermat's law The path taken by a light ray in going from one point to another is that route which takes the least time. Syn. Fermat's principle.
Ferry-Porter law The critical flicker frequency F is directly proportional to the logarithm of the luminance L of the stimulus, i.e.
F = a log L + b
where a and b are constants. See critical fusion frequency.
Granit-Harper law The critical fusion frequency increases with the logarithm of the retinal area stimulated.
Grassmann's law's Laws of colour mixture. 1. The first law states that any colour C of the visible spectrum can be matched in appearance by a mixture of three primary colours, such as red R, green G and blue B, provided that none of these can be matched by a mixture of the other two, i.e.
C = αR + βG + γB
where α, β and γ are the relative proportions of the chosen primaries.2. Additive property: if a colour is added in an identical manner to two equivalent mixtures (or single colours) the two new mixtures will appear identical, i.e. if A + B = C + D, then A + B + X = C + D + X, or if A = B, then A + X = B + X.3. Scalar property: if the brightness of each of two equivalent mixtures is increased or decreased by the same factor the two new mixtures will appear identical, i.e. if A + B = C + D, then k (A + B) = k (C + D).4. Associative property: if a colour is substituted in one of the mixtures by an equivalent colour the two new mixtures will appear identical, i.e. if A + B = C + D and X = B, then A + X = C + D.
Grotthus' law See Draper's law.
Helmholtz's law of magnification See Lagrange's law.
Hering's law of equal innervation Innervation to the extraocular muscles is equal to both eyes. Thus, all movements of the two eyes are equal and symmetrical. Syn. Hering's law; law of equal innervation. See yoke muscles.
law of identical visual directions An object stimulating corresponding retinal points is localized in the same apparent monocular direction in each eye. Syn. law of oculocentric visual direction. See line of direction; retinal corresponding points.
inverse square law of illumination The illuminance E of a surface by a point source is directly proportional to the luminous intensity I of a point source and to the cosine of the angle θ of incidence and inversely proportional to the square of the distance d between the surface and the source, i.e.
E = I cos (θ)/d2
Syn. law of illumination. See illuminance.
Imbert-Fick law Applied to applanation tonometry, this law states that the intraocular pressure P (in mmHg) is equal to the tonometer weight W (in g) divided by the applanated area A (in mm2), hence,
P = W/A
This law is correct only for infinitely thin, dry, elastic, spherical membranes.
Kirschmann's law The greatest contrast in colour is seen when the luminosity difference is small.
Knapp's law A correcting lens placed at the anterior focal plane of an axially ametropic eye forms an image equal in size to that formed in a standard emmetropic eye. Knapp's law applies to the relative spectacle magnification but not to the spectacle magnification. Syn. Knapp's rule.
Kollner's law See Kollner's rule.
Lagrange's law In paraxial optics, the product of the index of refraction of image space n′, the image size h′ and the half-angle of the refracted cone in image space u′ is equal to the product of the index of refraction of object space n, the object size h and the half-angle of the incident cone in object space u, i.e.
nhu′ = nhu
Syn. Helmholtz's law of magnification; Lagrange's relation; Smith-Helmholtz law. See sign convention.
Lambert's law See diffusion.
Listing's law 
When an eye moves to any position from the primary position, it may be considered to have made a single rotation about an axis that is perpendicular to both the initial and final lines of fixation at their point of intersection.
law of oculocentric visual direction See law of identical visual directions.
Piéron's law See Ricco's law.
Piper's law See Ricco's law.
Planck's law Law giving the energy distribution of a black body as a function of wavelength, for a specified temperature.
power law See Fechner's law.
Prentice's law The prismatic effect P in prism dioptres at a point on a lens is equal to the product of the distance c in centimetres of the point from the optical centre of the lens, and the dioptric power F of the lens, i.e.
P = cF
Syn. Prentice's rule. See differential prismatic effect; prism power; induced prism.
law of reciprocity See Bunsen-Roscoe law.
law of reflection The incident and reflected rays and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence lie in the same plane and the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection (Fig. L5).
law of refraction The incident and refracted rays and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence lie in the same plane and the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence i to the sine of the angle of refraction i′ is a constant for any two media, i.e.
where n and n′ are the refractive indices of the first and second medium, respectively. This constant (n′/n) is called the relative index of refraction for the two media. Syn. Descartes' law; Snell's law. See index of refraction; sign convention.
Ricco's law The product of the absolute threshold of luminance L and the image area A is a constant, i.e.
LA = C
This law is valid for small images subtending an angle of a few minutes of arc in the fovea and to one degree in the near macular region. For larger images in the macular area, Piéron's law applies; it states that the product of the luminance L of the image at threshold and the cube root of the retinal area A stimulated is a constant, i.e.
L3ÎA = C
In the peripheral retina, Piper's law becomes valid. This law states that the product of the luminance of the stimulus L and the square root of the area A is a constant, i.e.
LÎA = C
In the far periphery of the retina, L tends to become independent of A.
Sherrington's law of reciprocal innervation The contraction of a muscle is accompanied by simultaneous and proportional relaxation of its antagonist. For example, if the superior oblique muscle contracts, its antagonist, the inferior oblique muscle, relaxes. The validity of this law has been established by electromyography.
Smith-Helmholtz law See Lagrange's law.
Snell's law See law of refraction.
Stevens' law See Fechner's law.
Talbot's law See Talbot-Plateau law.
Talbot-Plateau law The brightness of a light source presented at short intervals above the critical fusion frequency is equal to that which would be produced by a constant light source of an intensity equal to the mean value of the intermittent stimuli. Syn. Talbot's law.
Weber's law The just noticeable difference (or difference threshold) in intensity of a stimulus ΧI varies as a constant ratio of the initial intensity of the stimulus I, i.e.
ΧI = kI
where k = {ΧI/I} is a constant called Weber's fraction (Weber's constant). Example: if the initial stimulus was a light source of 1000 cd/m2 and k = 0.01 (or 1%), ΧI = 0.01 ✕ 1000 = 10 cd/m2. Syn. Weber-Fechner law. See differential threshold.
Weber-Fechner law See Weber's law.
Fig. L5 Light ray incident at O on a surface separating two media of different refractive indices, n and n ′enlarge picture
Fig. L5 Light ray incident at O on a surface separating two media of different refractive indices, n and n

Table L1 Approximate amount of spectacle lens decentration (in mm) of its optical centre away from the pupillary centre of the eye to produce five prismatic effects (in prism dioptres) for distance vision. The results ignore the effect of spherical aberration
lens power + or prismatic effect required
1 Χ2 Χ3 Χ4 Χ5 Χ
20 D0.51.01.52.02.5
16 D0.61.31.92.53.1
14 D0.71.42.12.93.6
12 D0.81.72.53.34.2
10 D1.02.03.04.05.0
9 D1.12.23.34.45.6
8 D1.32.53.85.06.3
7 D1.42.94.35.77.1
6 D1.73.35.06.78.3
5 D2.04.06.08.010.0
4 D2.55.07.510.012.5
3 D3.36.710.013.316.7
2 D5.010.015.020.025.0
1 D10.020.030.040.050.0

law

(law)
1. A principle or rule.
2. A statement of fact detailing a sequence or relation of phenomena that is invariable under given conditions.
[A.S. lagu]

Patient discussion about law

Q. Mother in law not accepting the diagnosis. Our 3 years old son was diagnosed with autism some time ago, and although it’s not easy, our family and friends support and help us a lot, except my mother in-law (that lives close to us). She refuse to accept the fact that our son has autism, and keeps telling we are just hysteric and with little education our child will grow up just fine. What can we do? Were we wrong when we decided to tell everyone?

A. I believe that it is a matter of time until your mother in-law realizes the full extent of your son's condition. Perhaps now she cannot accept it, and would rather think of him as a normal healthy child, and with time she will grow to understand his needs and capabilities. The most important thing for you to do is keep her involved in his life, so that she will give him all the love he can get from his grandmother, regardless of his autism. It seems to me you are a strong family with great people around you, that will help you with anything you need, so work on what is best for your son, and that is loving him. Don't spend too much time worrying about what others know or believe.

Q. My brother in law is dealing with cancer. how can I help my sister deal with him?? My brother in law's cancer is treated by the best doctors of the ccountry. what I'm afraid of is my sister's depression. Since her husband was diagnosed and stopped working she is so down, she can hardly take care of her kids.It's like her world has darkened and I really don't know how to help her. Would really appreciate any advice. thank you, bless you all.

A. I lost my husband to cancer 5yrs ago, and it really helped me alot when my friend would come and just sit with me, helped with my house work, phone calls, meals and just a hug now and again. Give her all the time she needs to talk and cry and allow her time to be afraid. It is all normal. Just keep loving her, she knows your there and will appreciate it. Even small things you do for her are now big. When you can make her smile do so..... My prayers are with all of you.

Q. My brother-in-law named Jacob has bi-polar schizophrenia; please help us by giving some solution for this… My brother-in-law named Jacob has bi-polar schizophrenia; he is currently on his medication and takes them faithfully in a positive mood. We have a hard time communicating with each other and it's destroying our marriage, please help us by giving some solution for this…

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References in classic literature ?
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
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