In the human body, this toxin induces the massive release of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, from nerve endings that leads to the clinical picture called "latrodectism." Following the sensation of a needle prick at the bite site locally, pain and numbing develop that radiate to the bitten limb.
The symptoms of systemic toxicity that are known as latrodectism include muscle cramps, hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and headache.
(5,12-15,17) Initially, pain, edema, and erythema occur at the bite area, forming an annular lesion followed by latrodectism: a syndrome of generalized diaphoresis, extreme muscle pain, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypertension, flushing, headache, nausea, anxiety, and vomiting, and rarely myocarditis and priapism.
(18,19,23-25) The indications for antivenin use include: (1) continuing severe pain unresponsive to opioids; (2) extremes of age, e.g., children under the ages of 3-10 and the elderly, especially those with cardiovascular disease and the inability to tolerate autonomic stresses of latrodectism; and (3) evenomations in pregnant patients.
[Toxic pictures produced spiders bites in Chile: Latrodectism
They are considered highly dangerous as they inject neurotic venom called latrotoxin, which results in the condition latrodectism
(1) Envenomation may cause latrodectism
, a syndrome characterized by widespread, sustained muscle spasms.
Conditions which should be considered in a differential diagnosis are listed in Table I, where the major symptoms and signs of scorpionism, latrodectism
and neurotoxic cobra bite are compared.
Clinical conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis include scorpionism and latrodectism
. See Table 1 in the scorpion sting article for a comparison of major symptoms and signs of scorpionism, latrodectism
and neurotoxic cobra bite.
Neurotoxic spiders and the syndrome of latrodectism
The black widow spider is considered highly dangerous as it injects neurotic venom called latrotoxin through its bite, which results in the condition latrodectism
Scorpionism and latrodectism
share similar symptoms and signs.