Parameter Culvert Filling Slope Elasticity modulus E (MPa) 30000 30 3000 Poisson's ratio [mu] 0.2 0.32 0.3 Cohesion c (kPa) -- 0 150 Internal friction angle -- 32 35 [phi] ([degrees]) Density [rho] (kg/[m.sup.3]) 2500 1800 2000 Parameter Subgrade I Subgrade II Elasticity modulus E (MPa) 13 40 Poisson's ratio [mu] 0.36 0.3 Cohesion c (kPa) 3 0 Internal friction angle 28 32 [phi] ([degrees]) Density [rho] (kg/[m.sup.3]) 1800 2000 Table 2: Lateral pressure
coefficient on lateral wall.
As seen in this figure, there is a general trend towards decreasing lateral pressures
on nonyielding retaining walls with decreasing EPS density at equal thickness of geofoam panels.
The main objective is to identify the lateral pressure
Next, three schemes when the lateral pressure
coefficient is equal to 1.5 have been numerically simulated.
Hence, it is obvious according to equation (2-4) that in presence of lateral pressure
, axial compressive strength of the element is increased.
where [R.sub.bu] is concrete's resistibility under unixial compression; k is a lateral pressure
coefficient, which depends on edging draft level m = [[sigma].sub.bxu]/[[sigma].sub.bzu] and calculated by formula
--For medium rotation, say [(d/2).sub.max] = 1 mm (medium rotation), with moving back the wall, no significant increase in induced lateral pressure
Firstly only the affection of the lateral pressure
[[sigma].sub.c] on the GFRP pipe is considered.
This figure shows that increasing water depth will decrease lateral pressure
in both active and passive conditions.
Although a tilted patella is usually associated with increased lateral pressures
, diminished medial patellofemoral contact, and a tight retinaculum, none of these may occur in the presence of certain patellofemoral morphologies.
Located along the shaft of the drill, the actuators apply lateral pressure
against the side of the borehole to alter the orientation of the drill head.
Both excellent fuel efficiency and quietness are achieved through the efficient transmission of driving force by optimizing the lateral pressure
applied to the belt, along with the durability of the belt.