Early and late seizure
recurrence causes [19,20] Early Late Incomplete resection of Incomplete resection of epileptogenic zone epileptogenic zone Acute AED level changes Gliosis of the resection margins Electrolyte disturbances/ Progression of underlying disease hypoglycaemia or tumour Fever/pain/sleep deprivation Withdrawal of AEDs in multifocal Surgery-related cortical epilepsy irritation AED = anti-epileptic drug.
On the contrary, studies by Toyoda and colleagues have demonstrated that dorsomedial thalamus has consistently late seizure
onsets and is unlikely involved in the seizure initiation in pilocarpine-treated rat model .
Although injury severity is predictive of seizures, the routine prophylaxis of patients with severe TBI has not been shown to be effective in reducing their late seizure risk .
The development of late seizures warrants treatment.
With non-penetrating head injuries, the first late seizure occurs within the first year in 60% of individuals.
Late seizures occur after the patient has recovered from the effects of the injury and can occur weeks, months, or even years after the original injury.
Seizures occurring weeks or months after injury are called late seizure
& recurrent late seizures
make up the clinical syndrome of post traumatic epilepsy.
Of 50 patients, 24 (8%) had early seizures (within 15 days following stroke), 38 (12.7%) had late seizures
, and 12 had both early and late seizures
Management of Seizure Activity: Post traumatic seizures activities are common in patients with penetrating cerebral injury, which eventually present with late seizures
. In TBI post traumatic seizures are common manifestations.
Besides it has been found out that late seizures are more complicated that makes it necessary to provide therapy in good time.
As it is seen from the table late seizures are more complex, with tendency to generalization that makes it necessary to treat the basic disease in a due time.
Early seizures are classified as seizures within 15 days after stroke, whereas late seizures
are classified as seizures starting 16 days after stroke (7).