There is another well-known issue in laser lithotripter: fiber tip burn back [44, 53, 54], which is also a key factor for procedure time, patient safety, and care economics.
Traxer, "Update on lasers in urology 2014: current assessment on holmium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (ho:YAG) laser lithotripter settings and laser fibers," World Journal of Urology, vol.
In our opinion, particular attention should be paid to the RIRS technique utilizing a holmium laser lithotripter
in cases of calculi deposits located within the pyelocalyceal system.
Objective: To assess the success rates of endoscopic management of upper ureteral stones using semirigid ureterorenoscopy and holmium: YAG laser lithotripters.
Conclusion: Despite some potential risks, semirigid ureterorenoscopic stone extraction and holmium: YAG laser lithotripters are still safe and effective treatment alternatives for management of upper ureteral stones.
The lithotripters currently in use are: electrohydraulic (EHL), ultrasonic, pneumatic, a new combination of ultrasonic and Lithoclast and different types of laser lithotripters
.4 These advancements have accelerated the evolution of modern techniques of calculus removal.