larynges


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la·ryn·ges

(lă-rin'jēz),
Plural of larynx.
[L.]

larynges

(lə-rĭn′jēz)
n.
A plural of larynx

la·ryn·ges

(lă-rin'jēz)
Plural of larynx.
[L.]

larynx

(lar'inks) plural.larynges [Gr.]
Enlarge picture
LARYNX
A tube built of cartilage that begins at the pharynx and that forms the initial segment of the respiratory tree, extending from the base of the tongue to the trachea. Its closing mechanisms prevent the aspiration of liquids and solids during swallowing and allow coughing and the production of vocalizations. See: illustration

Anatomy

The framework of the larynx is built of three single cartilages and three paired cartilages. The unpaired cartilages are: the cricoid cartilage, a thick cartilage ring on top of the trachea; the thyroid cartilage, a V-shaped cartilage that sits on the cricoid with the point of its 'V' facing forward; and above this, the epiglottic cartilage, shaped like an upright paddle, with its handle held inside the front angle of the thyroid cartilage. The three smaller paired cartilages are: the arytenoids, the corniculates, and the cuneiforms. These nine cartilages are held together by membranes and ligaments, usually named by the structures that are interconnected; for example, the cricothyroid membrane connects the front of the cricoid cartilage with the base of the thyroid cartilage in the midline.

The intrinsic muscles of the larynx -- cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, transverse and oblique arytenoids, and vocalis -- alter the length and tension of the vocal cords and the size and shape of the opening between them (the rima glottis). The vagus nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the larynx; the cricothyroid muscle is innervated by the external laryngeal branch of the vagus, while the other intrinsic muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus.

The cavity within the larynx comprises three consecutive chambers. The first chamber, the vestibule of the larynx, is a tube between the pharynx and a pair of folds, the vestibular folds (the "false vocal cords"), that protrude into the larynx. The second chamber, the ventricle of the larynx, is a short segment between the vestibular folds and the vocal folds; the ventricle has lateral recesses extending laterally under the vestibular folds. The third chamber, the infraglottic cavity (infraglottic larynx, subglottic space), is a tube between the vocal folds and the trachea.

foreign bodies in larynx

An inhaled or aspirated solid object, such as a piece of meat, hard candy, safety pin, or coin, in the larynx. Any aspirated object poses an imminent risk of airway obstruction.

Symptoms

Symptoms may include coughing, choking, dyspnea, fixed pain, or loss of voice.

Patient care

If the patient is able to speak or cough, the rescuer should not interfere with the patient's attempts to expel the object. If the patient is unable to speak, cough, or breathe, the rescuer should apply the Heimlich maneuver 6 to 10 times rapidly in succession. Using air already in the lungs, the thrusts create an artificial cough to propel the obstructing object out of the airway. If the patient loses consciousness, carefully assist him or her to the ground in a supine (face up) position. Next the rescuer should begin CPR since compressions have been shown to be effective in clearing an obstruction. With each time attempt to ventilate, the rescuer should first look in the mouth to see if there is an object that can be pulled out of the airway with gloved fingers. Previously chest thrusts were taught for an obese or pregnant patient or a child with a foreign body airway obstruction. To simplify this procedure the Emergency Cardiac Care Guidelines 2005 recommend all patients receive chest compressions following CPR. For an infant, the rescuer uses back slaps before chest thrusts. Direct laryngoscopy and the use of Magill forceps may be required to remove a foreign object. If the object cannot be readily removed with these measures, an emergency cricothyrotomy, or emergency tracheotomy may be required. See: Heimlich maneuver

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References in periodicals archive ?
Dilworth reported presence of foramen thyroideum in four larynges out of 23.
The larynges aditus open close to the end of the posterior region of the tongue.
Asbestos bodies have been identified in the larynges of those exposed and may be associated with laryngeal irritation and hyperplasia, but no association between histologically confirmed asbestos bodies and laryngeal dysplasia or carcinoma has been seen.
The final verdict is simple: there are good reasons for classical singers to keep their larynges in a low, stable, relaxed position.
5) This view was supported by Falk, who studied sections of 21 larynges obtained from newborns and premature infants and found thyroid tissue in the trachea in 9 of them (42.
The probable reason for men's ability to produce more EMG biofeedback in the test trial is the comparably larger larynges and musculature of men.
Also, a higher incidence of laryngocele has been found in patients with laryngeal cancer as a result of obstruction of the saccule by the carcinoma; while laryngoceles are found in only 2% of adult larynges, they have been identified in approximately 18% of laryngeal cancer cases.
Students whose larynges have become rigidly held often have difficulty releasing the musculature to the degree required by the exercise.
They found that cure rates in the two groups were equal and that 64% of the nonsurgical patients were able to retain their larynges.
Discontent with only one male larynx, Emma obtained female larynges as well, where she identified what she believed were two new cartilages, used, she thought, to help close the vocal folds.
Following the publication of two promising experimental studies--one on rat sinus mucosal healing by Ingrams et al (16) in 1998 and another on dog larynges by Eliashar et al (32) in 1999--mitomycin C was successfully used on humans.
Unto, "Aspect of the Physiological Sources of Vocal Vibrato: A Study of Fundamental Period-Synchronous Changes in Electro-glottographic Signals Obtained from One Singer and Two Excised Human Larynges," Scandinavian Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 17 (1992): 87-93.