larynges


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la·ryn·ges

(lă-rin'jēz),
Plural of larynx.
[L.]

larynges

(lə-rĭn′jēz)
n.
A plural of larynx

la·ryn·ges

(lă-rin'jēz)
Plural of larynx.
[L.]

larynx

(lar'inks) plural.larynges [Gr.]
Enlarge picture
LARYNX
A tube built of cartilage that begins at the pharynx and that forms the initial segment of the respiratory tree, extending from the base of the tongue to the trachea. Its closing mechanisms prevent the aspiration of liquids and solids during swallowing and allow coughing and the production of vocalizations. See: illustration

Anatomy

The framework of the larynx is built of three single cartilages and three paired cartilages. The unpaired cartilages are: the cricoid cartilage, a thick cartilage ring on top of the trachea; the thyroid cartilage, a V-shaped cartilage that sits on the cricoid with the point of its 'V' facing forward; and above this, the epiglottic cartilage, shaped like an upright paddle, with its handle held inside the front angle of the thyroid cartilage. The three smaller paired cartilages are: the arytenoids, the corniculates, and the cuneiforms. These nine cartilages are held together by membranes and ligaments, usually named by the structures that are interconnected; for example, the cricothyroid membrane connects the front of the cricoid cartilage with the base of the thyroid cartilage in the midline.

The intrinsic muscles of the larynx -- cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, transverse and oblique arytenoids, and vocalis -- alter the length and tension of the vocal cords and the size and shape of the opening between them (the rima glottis). The vagus nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the larynx; the cricothyroid muscle is innervated by the external laryngeal branch of the vagus, while the other intrinsic muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus.

The cavity within the larynx comprises three consecutive chambers. The first chamber, the vestibule of the larynx, is a tube between the pharynx and a pair of folds, the vestibular folds (the "false vocal cords"), that protrude into the larynx. The second chamber, the ventricle of the larynx, is a short segment between the vestibular folds and the vocal folds; the ventricle has lateral recesses extending laterally under the vestibular folds. The third chamber, the infraglottic cavity (infraglottic larynx, subglottic space), is a tube between the vocal folds and the trachea.

foreign bodies in larynx

An inhaled or aspirated solid object, such as a piece of meat, hard candy, safety pin, or coin, in the larynx. Any aspirated object poses an imminent risk of airway obstruction.

Symptoms

Symptoms may include coughing, choking, dyspnea, fixed pain, or loss of voice.

Patient care

If the patient is able to speak or cough, the rescuer should not interfere with the patient's attempts to expel the object. If the patient is unable to speak, cough, or breathe, the rescuer should apply the Heimlich maneuver 6 to 10 times rapidly in succession. Using air already in the lungs, the thrusts create an artificial cough to propel the obstructing object out of the airway. If the patient loses consciousness, carefully assist him or her to the ground in a supine (face up) position. Next the rescuer should begin CPR since compressions have been shown to be effective in clearing an obstruction. With each time attempt to ventilate, the rescuer should first look in the mouth to see if there is an object that can be pulled out of the airway with gloved fingers. Previously chest thrusts were taught for an obese or pregnant patient or a child with a foreign body airway obstruction. To simplify this procedure the Emergency Cardiac Care Guidelines 2005 recommend all patients receive chest compressions following CPR. For an infant, the rescuer uses back slaps before chest thrusts. Direct laryngoscopy and the use of Magill forceps may be required to remove a foreign object. If the object cannot be readily removed with these measures, an emergency cricothyrotomy, or emergency tracheotomy may be required. See: Heimlich maneuver

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References in periodicals archive ?
This is in addition to the limitations of their small sample size in that the radiologic evaluation of the joint was made on only 3 larynges.
I activated the larynges of euthanized specimens with airflow, analyzed their acoustic output, and compared them to field recordings to determine (1) if variation in pulmonary pressure could produce a wider range of frequencies than observed in natural advertisement calls, (2) if variation in the produced sound frequency is correlated with sound intensity, and (3) if natural calls match the maxima of frequency and intensity obtained in the lab.
Case Age upon RDD Age upon Gender Onset of number diagnosis laryngeal RDD systemic (years) diagnosis symptoms (years) 1 27 28 M Cervical lymphadenopathy 2 34 36 F Cervical lymphadenopathy 3 39 41 M Nasal obstruction and cervical lymphadenopathy 4 38 38 M Cervical lymphadenopathy 5 45 45 F Hoarse voice, suffocation Case Sites of lymph number node involvement 1 Neck, axilla 2 Neck 3 Neck, axilla, groin 4 Neck, axilla 5 NA Table 2: The clinical features of larynges for the 5 RDD cases with laryngeal involvement.
Ortug C et al reported six larynges having foramen thyroideum, one specimen had bilateral and five specimens had unilateral.
(15) Rifai and Khattab performed a whole-organ section study of 30 excised larynges with AC carcinoma, and they confirmed the presence of cartilage invasion in all studied specimens.
(2) While I applaud the openness with which NATS has finally received (to the point of actually embracing) nonclassical singing styles, one result has been understandable confusion among our students about which direction the aesthetic winds are blowing, and therefore which direction they should send their collective larynges: down for classical, slightly elevated for CCM, or even higher for belt?
In 1995, Shapshay et al reported the feasibility of endoscopic repair of large mucosal avulsions in live dog larynges. (4) For that experiment, they created 2 x 2.5-cm glottic and subglottic defects and then grafted buccal mucosa to these areas via endosuture and CO/laser welding.
Near to the larynges aditus numerous projections like lingual papillae were noted.
I agree with the basic thrust of his article; it is imperative that we teach our students to sing with stabilized, slightly lowered larynges. Furthermore, his discussion of the lighter approach, especially for Rossini, is excellent.
(3) They cited postmortem studies by Roggli et al, (4) which noted that asbestos bodies but no dysplasia was found in the larynges of patients who had been exposed to asbestos.
Poor breathing technique, elevated larynges, hypernasality, slovenly musicianship, and egregious diction are rampant.
However, the results do lend support to our experimental hypothesis that adverse physiologic phonation and respiration subsystem reactions would be provoked in dust-mite-allergic patients if their larynges were deliberately exposed to high concentrations of D pteronyssinus.