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laryngeal paralysisENT Loss of function of one or both vocal folds. See Recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Loss of vocal fold mobility. Common causes include surgical trauma to the recurrent laryngeal nerve or invasion of the nerve by a tumor.Synonym: vocal paralysis
See also: paralysis
pertaining to the larynx.
laryngeal adductory reflex, adduction test
slapping of the saddle region of a horse just behind the withers causes a flickering, adductory movement of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage in normal horses. The movement of the cartilage can be viewed endoscopically. The reflex is abolished by damage to the adductory component of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by lesions in the spinal cord in the anterior thoracic region and by excitement. Called also slap test.
inflammation of the large air sacs found attached to the larynx in great apes.
necrosis and ulceration of laryngeal mucosa caudal to the vocal cords; seen in calves and especially in Texel and Southdown sheep.
can cause laryngeal obstruction in horses.
a cause of upper airway obstruction, particularly in brachycephalic dogs.
laryngeal congenital anomalies
epiglottal hypoplasia (horse, pig) is a rare anomaly.
laryngeal contact ulcers
are ulcerative lesions which develop at the site of minor abrasions caused by frequent contact and rubbing of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages.
a part of acute inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa due to infection, allergy or inhalation of irritant materials. It causes obstruction to air flow, stertor, dyspnea and potentially asphyxia.
everted laryngeal saccules
the laryngeal saccules protrude into the lumen of the larynx, become edematous and cause upper airway obstruction with increased inspiratory effort.
a vibration palpable at the throat with partial obstruction of the larynx.
unilateral paralysis, called also roaring, is a common condition in horses, causing a reduction in exercise tolerance and a loud stertor at exercise. Bilateral paralysis causes a more severe but similar syndrome.
a conspicuous mound in the throat of birds; carries the entrance to the larynx.
the principal lesion in calf diphtheria.
occurs in outbreaks in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx. The common bacteria in the lesions is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
includes chondroma, papilloma.
dysfuction, most commonly unilateral hemiplegia, of the recurrent layngeal nerve; see roaring.
may be acute or chronic, with signs varying to match. Stertor, inspiratory dyspnea and local signs, such as pain, swelling and the presence of foreign bodies, constitute the clinical syndrome.
occurs in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx.
can result from lesions of the vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerves, and may be acquired or congenital. It is seen in association with hypothyroidism in dogs. An inherited laryngeal paralysis occurs in the Bouvier des Flandres breed of dogs, causing varying degrees of noisy respirations and upper airway obstruction from several months of age. In immature Dalmatian dogs it is seen as part of a more widespread polyneuropathy with megaesophagus, neurologic deficits. See also laryngeal hemiplegia (above).
recorded in horses in association with Besnoitia spp. infection.
laryngeal pyriform recesses
permit the grazing ruminant to breathe, and to sniff the air, while eating and ruminating.
the lining of the laryngeal ventricle.
the normal sounds of air going in and out past the larynx, as heard with a stethoscope. When there is stenosis the sounds are loud and harsh, also called stertor; with catarrhal inflammation they are gurgling.
a reflex constriction of the larynx because of contact with foreign material being inhaled or during administration of a gaseous anesthetic, especially in cats. May cause asphyxiation.
laryngeal sphincteric girdle
the muscles that constrict the laryngeal opening, and the cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles.
may follow laryngeal surgery, inury (particularly prolonged intubation), or infection; granulation tissue and cartilage degeneration and collapse can cause a progressive reduction in the airway.
loud breath sounds caused by a narrowing of the laryngeal lumen.
common subclinical lesion in feedlot cattle; lesions are at points of apposition of vocal processes and medial angles of arytenoid processes.
a bilateral outpocketing of the laryngeal mucosa in the dog, pig and horse. In the dog and the horse they are between the vocal and vestibular folds in the lateral walls of the laryngeal vestibule. In the pig they are in the lateral wall of the glottis.
removal of the mucosa lining the relevant laryngeal ventricle as a treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.
the short space from the entrance to the larynx to the rima glottidis.
loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Called also palsy. Motor paralysis may be expressed as flaccid, in the case of lower motor neuron lesion, or spastic, in the case of an upper motor neuron lesion. See also paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia and paralyses of individual cranial and peripheral nerves.
paralysis of accommodation
paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
manifested by flaccidity and lack of tone of the anal sphincter, and loss of house training restraint in companion animals.
pressure on sciatic nerves by a large fetus in late pregnancy in a cow can cause posterior paralysis that is cured by a cesarean section.
spinal paralysis that progresses forwards involving first the hindlimbs then the forelimbs, then the intercostal muscles, then the diaphragm, and finally the muscles of the neck.
that due to injury received by the neonate at birth.
manifested by fullness of the bladder and response to manual pressure. See also motor paralytic urinary bladder.
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
paralysis caused by some intracranial lesion.
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
that caused by pressure on a nerve.
paralysis of the newborn. Many cases are due to birth trauma especially when lay persons exert excessive traction. Other causes are enzootic ataxia, inherited congenital paraplegias in calves and pigs, spina bifida and spinal dysraphism and occipito-alanto-axial malformations in foals and puppies.
loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
see idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis.
paralysis affecting one side of the head and the other side of the body.
curled toe paralysis
a disease of poultry caused by a nutritional deficiency of riboflavin. See also curled toe paralysis.
paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
manifested by inability to swallow, and regurgitation.
weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve. See also facial paralysis.
paralysis characterized by loss of voluntary movement, decreased tone of limb muscles, absence of tendon reflexes and neurogenic atrophy.
the absence of immune response to a specific antigen. See also tolerance.
infectious bulbar paralysis
see aujeszky's disease.
local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
maternal obstetric paralysis in the ewe.
see laryngeal hemiplegia.
combined motor and sensory paralysis.
paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
paralysis caused by damage to the local motor nerve supply. See also peripheral nerve paralysis (below).
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
peripheral nerve paralysis
the part deprived of its peripheral nerve supply shows flaccid paralysis, absence of spinal reflexes, muscle atrophy and a subnormal temperature.
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
paralysis of the hindlimbs, tail and perineum. See also paraplegia.
see marek's disease.
loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes.
see hypoglossal nerve paralysis.