laryngeal edema


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laryngeal edema

laryngeal edema

Edema of the larynx, usually resulting from allergic reaction and causing airway obstruction unless treated. Therapy consists of intravenous or intratracheal epinephrine, emergency tracheostomy, or both.
See also: edema

edema

an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cavities and intercellular spaces of the body.
Edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypoproteinemia, in which a lowered concentration of plasma proteins decreases the osmotic pressure, thereby permitting passage of abnormal amounts of fluid out of the blood vessels and into the tissue spaces. Some other causes are poor lymphatic drainage, increased capillary permeability (as in inflammation), and congestive heart failure. See also anasarca, ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium and anatomically located edemas, e.g. brain, corneal, pulmonary edema.

angioneurotic edema
cardiac edema
is part of the syndrome of congestive heart failure. It comprises 'bottle jaw', jugular vein engorgement, edema of the brisket and underline, and ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium. See also congestive heart failure.
dependent edema
edema affecting most severely the lowermost parts of the body.
edema disease
1. in pigs a highly fatal disease of young pigs in the weaner and grower age groups characterized by incoordination, a hoarseness of voice, weakness, flaccid paralysis and blindness. Edema of the eyelids, face and ears is diagnostic but is seldom visible on clinical examination. The course is short, often less than 24 hours, and many pigs are just found dead. The disease is caused by the opportunistic proliferation of specific serotypes of Escherichia coli in an intestinal environment brought about by a change to a diet more dense in carbohydrates. These have pilus attachment antigens that allow attachment of the organism to the small intestines and produce a verotoxin (VT2e) which produces an increase in vascular permeability in the target vessels in the CNS with resultant neurological disease. Called also gut edema, bowel edema.
2. in goats a disease caused by Mycoplasma F38; a fatal cellulitis.
gravitational edema
see dependent edema (above).
gut edema
see edema disease (above).
hepatic edema
edema is a common accompaniment of hepatic disease because of the decline in production of plasma proteins and a fall in the blood's hydrostatic pressure. Ascites may occur independently because of portal hypertension when there is severe liver disease and obstruction to blood flow in the portal vein.
hypoproteinemic edema
caused by insufficient production of albumin or excess loss through a protein losing enteropathy. See hepatic edema (above), Johne's disease, proliferative enteropathy, type II ostertagiasis.
laryngeal edema
see laryngeal edema.
leg edema
a disease of market age turkeys of unknown cause and characterized by edema of the legs and focal muscle necrosis.
low-pressure edema
noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. See acute respiratory distress syndrome.
edema neonatorum
edema of the newborn. See lymphatic vessel obstruction.
pitting edema
edema in which pressure by the clinician's finger leaves a persistent depression in the tissues.
subcutaneous edema
may be generalized and constitute anasarca. Local areas of edema occur in such other conditions as angioedema and urticaria, edematous plaques in dourine and infectious equine anemia, and in purpura hemorrhagica.
vasogenic edema
that characterized by increased permeability of capillary endothelial cells; the most common form of brain edema.

laryngeal

pertaining to the larynx.

laryngeal adductory reflex, adduction test
slapping of the saddle region of a horse just behind the withers causes a flickering, adductory movement of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage in normal horses. The movement of the cartilage can be viewed endoscopically. The reflex is abolished by damage to the adductory component of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by lesions in the spinal cord in the anterior thoracic region and by excitement. Called also slap test.
laryngeal airsacculitis
inflammation of the large air sacs found attached to the larynx in great apes.
laryngeal cartilage
includes epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid, and the paired arytenoid cartilages.
laryngeal chondritis
necrosis and ulceration of laryngeal mucosa caudal to the vocal cords; seen in calves and especially in Texel and Southdown sheep.
laryngeal chondroma
can cause laryngeal obstruction in horses.
laryngeal collapse
a cause of upper airway obstruction, particularly in brachycephalic dogs.
laryngeal congenital anomalies
epiglottal hypoplasia (horse, pig) is a rare anomaly.
laryngeal contact ulcers
are ulcerative lesions which develop at the site of minor abrasions caused by frequent contact and rubbing of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages.
laryngeal edema
a part of acute inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa due to infection, allergy or inhalation of irritant materials. It causes obstruction to air flow, stertor, dyspnea and potentially asphyxia.
everted laryngeal saccules
the laryngeal saccules protrude into the lumen of the larynx, become edematous and cause upper airway obstruction with increased inspiratory effort.
laryngeal fremitus
a vibration palpable at the throat with partial obstruction of the larynx.
laryngeal hemiplegia
unilateral paralysis, called also roaring, is a common condition in horses, causing a reduction in exercise tolerance and a loud stertor at exercise. Bilateral paralysis causes a more severe but similar syndrome.
laryngeal mound
a conspicuous mound in the throat of birds; carries the entrance to the larynx.
laryngeal necrobacillosis
the principal lesion in calf diphtheria.
laryngeal necrosis
occurs in outbreaks in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx. The common bacteria in the lesions is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
laryngeal neoplasm
includes chondroma, papilloma.
laryngeal neuropathy
dysfuction, most commonly unilateral hemiplegia, of the recurrent layngeal nerve; see roaring.
laryngeal obstruction
may be acute or chronic, with signs varying to match. Stertor, inspiratory dyspnea and local signs, such as pain, swelling and the presence of foreign bodies, constitute the clinical syndrome.
laryngeal papilloma
occurs in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx.
laryngeal paralysis
can result from lesions of the vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerves, and may be acquired or congenital. It is seen in association with hypothyroidism in dogs. An inherited laryngeal paralysis occurs in the Bouvier des Flandres breed of dogs, causing varying degrees of noisy respirations and upper airway obstruction from several months of age. In immature Dalmatian dogs it is seen as part of a more widespread polyneuropathy with megaesophagus, neurologic deficits. See also laryngeal hemiplegia (above).
laryngeal polyp
recorded in horses in association with Besnoitia spp. infection.
laryngeal pyriform recesses
permit the grazing ruminant to breathe, and to sniff the air, while eating and ruminating.
laryngeal saccule
the lining of the laryngeal ventricle.
laryngeal sounds
the normal sounds of air going in and out past the larynx, as heard with a stethoscope. When there is stenosis the sounds are loud and harsh, also called stertor; with catarrhal inflammation they are gurgling.
laryngeal spasm
a reflex constriction of the larynx because of contact with foreign material being inhaled or during administration of a gaseous anesthetic, especially in cats. May cause asphyxiation.
laryngeal sphincteric girdle
the muscles that constrict the laryngeal opening, and the cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles.
laryngeal stenosis
may follow laryngeal surgery, inury (particularly prolonged intubation), or infection; granulation tissue and cartilage degeneration and collapse can cause a progressive reduction in the airway.
laryngeal stertor
loud breath sounds caused by a narrowing of the laryngeal lumen.
laryngeal ulceration
common subclinical lesion in feedlot cattle; lesions are at points of apposition of vocal processes and medial angles of arytenoid processes.
laryngeal ventricle
a bilateral outpocketing of the laryngeal mucosa in the dog, pig and horse. In the dog and the horse they are between the vocal and vestibular folds in the lateral walls of the laryngeal vestibule. In the pig they are in the lateral wall of the glottis.
laryngeal ventriculectomy
removal of the mucosa lining the relevant laryngeal ventricle as a treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.
laryngeal vestibule
the short space from the entrance to the larynx to the rima glottidis.
References in periodicals archive ?
The second aim was to decrease operative complication such as desaturation, bronchospasm and laryngeal edema during bronchoscopy.
Laryngeal edema caused by iatrogenic injury, especially with multiple bronchoscope insertions, appeared as hoarseness.
According to our experience airway complications including bronchospasm, laryngospasm and laryngeal edema during or after anesthesia were observed more commonly in children with a chronic history and organic material (walnut, peanut, wheat, chestnut) aspiration, in foreign bodies which led to trauma in the pulmonary parenchyma (needle, bone, pen tip, toy parts), in prolonged bronchoscopies (>1 hour), in children who had active lung infection or upper respiratory tract infection during the procedure.
Laryngeal edema is a serious, life-threatening event requiring prompt and aggressive treatment.
Although instances of HAE can occur spontaneously, several known precipitating or contributing factors can lead to laryngeal edema in particular.
Therefore, nurses must be mindful that airway compromise can result if resistance to airflow occurs due to postoperative laryngeal edema.
Laryngeal edema is associated with croup, a common and usually non-serious childhood illness.
Sheffer evaluated the data from four clinical studies of KALBITOR and determined that KALBITOR demonstrated clinically meaningful efficacy for potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema due to HAE.
Most often, blunt-force injuries are associated with laryngeal edema, granuloma formation, vocal fold paresis and, in rare cases, vocal fold immobility.
Corticosteroids reduce oedema, whether the cause of inflammation is infection, trauma or allergy [17], and are extensively used in otorhinolaryngology in managing airway compromise as a result of laryngotracheal bronchitis, epiglottitis, laryngeal trauma, allergic laryngeal edema, subglottic stenosis [18], when given IV dexamethasone prior to surgery, has been effective in reducing post operative edema, pain and trismus in patients who have undergone extractions for impacted third molars [19].
3) As otolaryngologists have been more diligent about looking for signs of LPR such as posterior laryngeal edema (swelling) and erythema (redness), obliteration of the laryngeal ventricles and interarytenoid hypertrophy, treatment for LPR based upon these findings has become increasingly common.
Other airway-related reactions include laryngeal edema and pulmonary edema.