laparoscopy(redirected from laparoscopies)
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- Tubal ligation. In this procedure, the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent subsequent pregnancies.
- Ectopic pregnancy. If a fertilized egg becomes embedded outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, an operation must be performed to remove the developing embryo. This often can be done with laparoscopy.
- Endometriosis. This is a condition in which tissue from inside the uterus is found outside the uterus in other parts of (or on organs within) the pelvic cavity. This can cause cysts to form. Endometriosis is diagnosed with laparoscopy, and in some cases the cysts and other tissue can be removed during laparoscopy.
- Hysterectomy. This procedure to remove the uterus can, in some cases, be performed using laparoscopy. The uterus is cut away with the aid of the laparoscopic instruments and then the uterus is removed through the vagina.
- Ovarian masses. Tumors or cysts in the ovaries can be removed using laparoscopy.
- Appendectomy. This surgery to remove an inflamed appendix required open surgery in the past. It is now routinely performed with laparoscopy.
- Cholecystectomy. Like appendectomy, this procedure to remove the gall bladder used to require open surgery. Now it can be performed with laparoscopy, in some cases.
- Liver cancer. Laparoscopy is an important tool for determining if cancer is present in the liver. When a patient has non-liver cancer, the liver is often checked to see if the cancer has spread there. Laparoscopy can identify up to 90% of malignant lesions that have spread to that organ from a cancer located elsewhere in the body. While computerized tomography (CT) can find cancerous lesions that are 0.4 in (10 mil) in size, laparoscopy is capable of locating lesions that are as small as 0.04 in (1 millimeter).
- Pancreatic cancer. Laparoscopy has been used to evaluate pancreatic cancer for years. In fact, the first reported use of laparoscopy in the United States was in a case involving pancreatic cancer.
- Esophageal and stomach cancers. Laparoscopy has been found to be more effective than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosing the spread of cancer from these organs.
- Hodgkin's disease. Some patients with Hodgkin's disease have surgical procedures to evaluate lymph nodes for cancer. Laparoscopy is sometimes selected over laparotomy for this procedure. In addition, the spleen may be removed in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Laparoscopy is the standard surgical technique for this procedure, which is called a splenectomy.
- Prostate cancer. Patients with prostate cancer may have the nearby lymph nodes examined. Laparoscopy is an important tool in this procedure.
- inflammation of the abdominal cavity lining
- problems related to general anesthesia
See also: peritoneoscopy.
Laparoscopy first became clinically practicable with the development of fiberoptics in the 1960s and of high-intensity, low-heat halogen bulbs in the 1970s. The technique has become standard, in selected cases, for many routine surgical procedures formerly requiring laparotomy, such as appendectomy, cholecystectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, oophorectomy, a second look after excision of an ovarian tumor, and diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis and female infertility. The peritoneal cavity is first inflated with CO2 gas, and the laparoscope passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall. One or two further incisions are usually required to provide surgical access to the area of interest. For some procedures a 6- to 8-cm incision may be made so that the surgeon can insert one hand. An elaborate armamentarium of surgical instruments has been developed to perform incision, drainage, excision, cautery, ligation, suturing, and other procedures with the laparoscope. The risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications, hospitalization time, and the cost of treatment are generally much less with laparoscopic surgery than with traditional open procedures.
laparoscopy/lap·a·ros·co·py/ (lap″ah-ros´kah-pe) examination or treatment of the interior of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope.
laparoscopyPeritoneoscopy Procedural medicine A procedure in which a laparoscope is used for various procedures–eg, lyse adhesions, tubal sterilization, remove foreign bodies, tissue and organs, stage cancer, fulgurate–'zap'–endometriosis implants, biopsy the liver, ovary, etc, diagnose abdominal pain, visualize the liver, evaluate pelvic masses–eg, lymphoma, and obtain biopsies. See Laparotomy.
See also: peritoneoscopy
laparoscopyDirect visual examination of the interior of the abdomen, through a narrow optical device (endoscope) passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall. Endoscopes use fibre optic illumination and viewing channels. Laparoscopy allows a range of operations to be performed using instruments passed in through the endoscope.
laparoscopythe technique of using an illuminated tubular instrument, the laparoscope, to examine structures within the abdomen.