and Calagari, A.A.: 2018b, Lanthanide
tetrad effect in limestone: A tool to environment analysis of the Ruteh Formation, NW Iran.
For the extraction of lanthanides
from aqueous systems, different prospective sorbents are studied by several research groups [20-24].
Determination of lanthanides
by any physio-chemical technique is a always a difficult task due to the similarity in their chemical and physical behavior.
Based on the above investigations, nitric acid pre-leach were optimized to maximize rare earth dissolution and minimize calcium and phosphate dissolution, the lanthanides
were selectively leached from phosphate rock with a little uranium and [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] by conducting 12.5 g of the phosphate rock (0.5-0.6 mm) with 50 mL of 0.5 M nitric acid in thermo- static vessel and 400 rpm,, in two extraction stages each within 5 min.
For example, dual-modal (UC/DC) luminescence has been successfully realized through lanthanide
(Ln) ions doped NaGdF4 core/shell nanocrystals by Chen's group .
The mechanism for upconversion of lanthanide
([Ln.sup.3+])-doped nanocrystals is a probability-based event.
As shown in Figure 1, the absorption dispersions for MDC, composed of different combinations of positive association lanthanides
; Nd and Sm, with negative association elements; and Ho and Er are presented.
For the nuclei included in our study, all chains of lanthanides
begins as vibrational with R(4/2) near 2.0 and move towards rotational (R(4/2) [right arrow] 3.33) as neutron number increases.
The 17 'rare earths', the collective name for the 15 lanthanides
, scandium and yttrium are essential and very, very politically significant.
Rare earths, considered as containing a group of elements comprising scandium, yttrium and 15 other elements (lanthanides
), are now widely used in high technology industries.
It also incorporates a group of rare-earth elements known as lanthanides
. The repackaged DNA is protected from damage as it travels into the cells and the lanthanides
allow visualization of the delivery into cells.