At positive curvature, lamellipodia
extend from the cell to crawl along the substrate, and these protrusions are characterised by retrograde actin flow towards the inside of the cell.
Within this group, Cdc42 and Rac1 are involved in the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia
, respectively, whereas RhoA mediates cellular contractility and formation of focal adhesions (10).
For further unraveling the teratogenic effect of VPA on the cardiomyocytes, we used H9C2 cells (undifferentiated rat cardiomyoblasts) to be treated with VPA, which demonstrated that VPA exposure resulted in defective cell polarity, migration, and lamellipodia
formation (data unpublished).
Moreover, the confocal immunofluorescence analysis of the expression of cortactin, a multidomain protein known to contribute to the formation of dynamic cortical actin-associated structures (such as lamellipodia
) as well as to the transduction of specific cell signalling [54-56], revealed that this protein was diffused throughout the cytoplasm and, in some cells, colocalized with cortical F-actin at the cell periphery (Figures 3(a) and 3(i); overlap coefficient r: 0.924 [+ or -] 0.055).
Bone marrow cells cultured on small diameter NT arrays demonstrated well-spread morphologies with more lamellipodia
, whereas the cells on large diameter NT arrays displayed noticeable filopodium.
It has long been considered that IMs are an intermediate step in maturation of infiltrating blood monocytes towards AMs [54, 55] because they display blunt lamellipodia
and fewer lamellar inclusions than AMs and are morphologically more closely related to blood monocytes [4, 56, 57].
Another important characteristic about actin, is the fact that is essentially regulated during cell migration, cell adhesion, cell division, and several other essential cellular functions, because actin is part of the configuration of many cellular structures including filopodia, lamellipodia
, microvilli and stress fibers (Zhu, Zhang, Hu, Wen and Wang, 2013).
have been the type of cell shown to drive CE.
In a subconfluent state, the control untreated cells demonstrate active formation and retraction of lamellipodia
, through which cells establish stable or transient contacts with each other (Figure 4).
Confocal imaging revealed that the majority of control untreated cells showed small dot-like structures of phosphorylated-FAK (Figure 2(c)) and phosphorylated-paxillin (Figure 2(d)) extending into a polarized, actin-containing lamellipodia
. In contrast, antcin-H treatment decreased the phosphorylated-FAK and phosphorylated-paxillin levels at the leading edge and reduced lamellipodia
formation in 786-0 cells (Figures 2(c) and 2(d)).
SEM micrograph (Figure 1(b)) of the nontreated cells revealed a semi-flattened surface structure containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia
known as membrane ruffles.
Hall, "Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases regulate the assembly of multimolecular focal complexes associated with actin stress fibers, lamellipodia
, and filopodia," Cell, vol.