Other hormones have contributed to calcium homeostasis in pregnancy like calcitonin, PTHrP, prolactin, placental lactogen
, and insulin-like growth factor 1 .
Increased mammary growth was observed in test female non lactating mice, as compared to controls when placental lactogen
(26) The placenta is a major endocrine organ during gestation, and in the case of mice, a variety of placental cells, such as giant trophoblast, spongiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells, produce progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen
I/II (PL1 and 2) as well as several prolactin-like proteins in order to maintain pregnancy and determine the timing of parturition.
(106.) Marinelli et al., supra note 105, at 137 ("Placental lactogen
, progesterone, estrogen, and prolactin all play important roles in achieving a continuous production of maternal milk.").
For instance, during pregnancy, [beta]-cell mass can expand due to the action of circulating maternal hormones (prolactin and placental lactogen
Effect on iron status markers, serum erythropoietin and human placental lactogen
. A placebo controlled study in 207 Danish women.
The placenta produces a hormone called the human placental lactogen
(HPL), which raises the mother's blood glucose level and makes her body less sensitive to insulin.
Ternary complex between placental lactogen
and the extracellular domain of the prolactin receptor.
They are related to hormonal regulation of human placental lactogen
by inhibiting the release (hPL) from trophoblastic cells.
However, it shows increased expression of tissue as well as serum human placental lactogen
Mann, "Central lactogenic regulation of maternal behavior in rats: steroid dependence, hormone specificity, and behavioral potencies of rat prolactin and rat placental lactogen
I," Endocrinology, vol.
Stewart, "Evaluation of [beta]-cell replication in mice transgenic for hepatocyte growth factor and placental lactogen
: comprehensive characterization of the G1/S regulatory proteins reveals unique involvement of p21 cip," Diabetes, vol.