L-vocalisation and labiodental
variants of /r/ in the speech of Colchester primary school children--the acquisition of a sound change?
Participants created more nonstandard past tense forms for verbs with higher prediction differences, for verbs with lower-frequency past tense forms, for verbs with stems ending in alveolar or labiodental fricatives, and for verbs for which the standard prescribes de.
The type of obstruent is relevant in case the prediction difference is low: larger numbers of nonstandard forms are found in the case of stem-final alveolar fricatives and stem-final labiodental fricatives.
The effect of the type of the final obstruent shows that participants produced more nonstandard forms for words ending in alveolar and labiodental fricatives than for words ending in plosives or velar fricatives.
The participants created more inconsistency errors for verbs with higher prediction differences, for verbs with lower-frequency past tense forms, for verbs with stems ending in alveolar or labiodental fricatives, and for verbs for which the standard prescribes the suffix de.
The trends observed in the Home Counties speech, such as GOOSE fronting, l-vocalisation or labiodental
variants of /[theta]/, have been adopted by other urban centres in England.
The placing of the newly developed labiodental fricatives, which were treated as Grade III hekou, must also have been arbitrarily based on their fanqie spellers, since there is good evidence from other sources to show that they must have already been redistributed in various ways among other finals.
In the aberrant skeletal rhyme tables of the Northern Song philosopher Shao Yong, which used the same basic categories as the Yunjing but applied them directly to the current language without reference to the rhymes of the Qieyun, the labiodentals are redistributed over Grades I, II, and IV (Pulleyblank 1985; 1984: 86-90).