Xanthurenic Acid, Kynurenic Acid
, and Blood Sugar Regulation
To achieve more discriminative power, a biomarker group was generated including 6 upregulated (creatine, tryptophan, N-acetylhistidine, L-carnitine, pyroglutamic acid, and indoleacrylic acid) and 10 downregulated (prolinebetaine, L-acetylcarnitine, pipecolic acid, xanthurenic acid, trigonelline, kynurenic acid
, indole-3-carboxylic acid, phosphorylcholine, 4-pyridoxic acid, and thymine) metabolites with AUC > 0.85.
(KYNA), an endogenous glutamate-receptor antagonist preferentially blocking NMDA-receptors, has analgesic properties and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Ethanol (ALPIMEX,98[degrees]), tetraethoxysilane [TE-OS] (SIGMA-ALDRICH, 98%), kynurenic acid
(SIGMA, 98%), and ammonium hydroxide (J.
On the basis of the hypothesis that changes in neurotransmission within the RVLM in 1K-1C model contribute to maintain high BP, the present study begins to test in the first series of experiments, in renovascular hypertensive rats, the phasic and tonic actions of glutamate into the RVLM, by injecting glutamate and its antagonist (kynurenic acid
) into the region.
Reversal of imbalance between kynurenic acid
and 3-hydroxykynurenine by antipsychotics in medication-naive and medication-free schizophrenic patients.
For the first time, scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have linked a brain compound called kynurenic acid
to cognition, possibly open doors for new ways to enhance memory function and treat catastrophic brain diseases.
kynurenine, quinolinic acid (Quin) or kynurenic acid
Using the PIT model, we next used kynurenic acid
treatment to counteract key molecules identified by the Gene Chip and observed differential rates of behavioral recovery after infarction (10).
Age-related increase of kynurenic acid
in human cerebrospinal fluid - IgG and beta2microglobulin changes.
(KYNA) is the only known endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist found in humans.
Benzodiazepines or glutamate antagonists such as valproic or kynurenic acid
may suppress the excitotoxic effects.